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' fllllli BIBEIIIIII IJlll 

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 
LIBRARY 



TEXTBOOK COLLECTION 

GIFT OF 

THE PUBLISHERS 




The retail price of this book U $ 



SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



LONGMANS' 
SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



DAVID SALMON 






msyf EDITION REVISED 

bsaktmeht or eddoatiok 

aSLiSD SIAHFOfiD JUSIOS imiTEBSl'. 

NEW YORK 
LONGMANS, OEEEN, AND CO. 



593634 

C 

Copyright, 1891, by 
C. J. MILLS. 



Copyright, 1899, by 
LONGMANS, GREEN & CO. 



First Edition, May, i8gi. 

Reprinted, September, 1891, August, 1893, June, 1894, 

July and October, 1895, November, 1896, September 

AND November, 1897, October, 1898. 

September, 1899. 



.i 



PREFACE TO AMERICAN EDITION. 



It seems to be generally conceded that English grammar is 
worse taught and less understood than any other subject in the 
school course. This is, doubtless, largely due to the kind of 
text-books used, which, for the most part, require methods 
that violate the laws of pedagogy as well as of language. 
There are, however, two or three English grammars that are 
admirable commentaries on the facts of the language, but, 
written from the point of view of the scholar rather than 
of the learner, they fail to awaken any interest in the subject, 
and hence are not serviceable for the class-room. 

My attention was first called to Longman^ School Gram- 
mar by a favorable notice of it in the Nation, In hope of 
finding an answer to the inquiry of numerous teachers for 
"the best School grammar," I sent to the Publishers for a 
copy. An examination of the work, so far from resulting in 
the usual disappointment, left the impression that a successful 
text-book in a field strewn with failures had at last been pro- 
duced. For the practical test of the class-room, I placed it in 
the hands of an accomplished grammarian, who had tried sev- 
eral of the best grammars published, and he declares the 
results to be most satisfactory. 

The Author's simplicity of method, the clear statement ot 



PREFACE TO AMERICAN EDITION, 



m 

facts, the orderly arrangement, the wise restraint, manifest on 
every page, reveal the scholar and practical teacher. No one 
who had not mastered the language in its early historical 
development could have prepared a school granmiar so free 
from senseless rules and endless details. The most striking 
feature, minimum of precept, m/iximum of example, will com- 
mend itself to all teachers who follow rational methods. In 
this edition, the Publishers have adapted the illustrative sen- 
tences to the ready comprehension of American pupils, and I 
take pleasure in recommending the book, in behalf of our 
mother tongue, to the teachers of our Public and Private 
Schools. 



EDWAED A. ALLEN. 



Univeksity op Missoubi, 
May, 1891. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



PABTS OP SPEECH. 



PAOB 

NOUNS 1 

VERBS 6 

The same Words as Nouns and 

Verbs. ... . 16 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS . . 18 

Be and HdFs ... 22 

ADJECTIVES . . . . 23 



PARSING . 
ADVERBS 
PREPOSITIONS . 
CONJUNCTIONS 
INTERJECTIONS 
REVIEW . 



PAOS 

81 
33 
38 
43 
47 
48 



FABT 11. 
CLASSIFICATION AND INFLECTION. 



NOUNS 

Proper Nouns 

Common Nouns . 

Abstract Nouns 

Number 

Collective Nouns 

Gender 

Nominative Case 

Objective Case. 

PossessiWCasb 

Place of Subject and Object 

Review . 
PRONOUNS . 

Personal Pronouns 

Reflexive Pronouns. 

Relaxivb Pronouns 



r2 
52 
63 
53 
56 
62 
62 
67 
72 
76 
78 
79 
81 
81 
85 
87 



PRONOUNS— con<mt*«l. 

Interrogative Pronouns 

Demonstrative, Indefinite, 
AND Distributive Pronouns 

Review . 
ADJECTIVES 

Comparison . 

Review 
VERBS . 

Active Voice 

Passive Voice 

Transitive Verbs 

Intransitive Verbs 

Moods 

Indicative Mood . 

Imperative Mood 



93 

94 
96 
98 
100 
103 
105 
105 
105 
106 
106 
108 
109 
110 



LONQMANS' SCHOOL 6BAMMAR 



CLASSIFICATION AND INFLECTION— ronfinaei;. 



VERBS— etmHnued. 

SOBJCTHCTIVE MuUO 

iNFTHinvB Mood 
SnBJCHCTrfK Mood 

PlBTlCtFLES 



Stbonq and 


Weak Vebbb 


. 130 


Pebem and 


NniiBBB . 


. 134 


OOWOOITION 




. 185 1 


Have 




. 135 


Be . 




. 137 1 


Call . 




. 139 1 


SliaU . 




. 145 I 


wm 




. ml 








Can 




. 146 1 




or VEBEa . 


. 148 i 


Bbtibw 




. 149 1 



116 CONJUNCTIONS 



A FEW DIFFICULTIES 

The Case iFTEM Bx 

AFFOBmOU , 

NoHmtTiTE Absolutb . 

NOHINAITVE OF AliDREHS 

NottHs OF TiMB, Space, . 
Meabureheht 

WOBDB ' 
OBDBft . 

Sot . 
Thjf 



PART III. 

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 



SIMPLE SENTENCES . 

SCBJBCT AND PbEDICATE 

The Fkbuicats 
Tbe Object 

EMliABaED Sdbjeot 

En^aboep Object 

bubjict and owect . 
Eklaboed Pkedil'ate 
AcTTTB Verbs or Imcohpi-ete 

Prkdication . 
IsDiBECT Object . 

IHTEHKOQAirVE SeNTENCEB . 

Ihpebatite andOptatite Ses- 
LoHa Sbntbncbb 



Simple SENTENCES-cont 

MlKCEtLL^VEUUa SlUJiLE 3eH- 
TENCEB FOH AnALTBIB . 

COMPLEX SENTENCES 

NotJH Clauses 

AiiJECTive Claubeb . 

Adterbul Clauses 

MJECEL^A^Euua CouFLEi Sen- 
tences fOk AniLiais 
COMPOUND SENTENCES 

CONJUNCTIONB 

BEVIEW .... 
Miscellanbodb Bimplb, Cot 

PLEI, AND COHFOUHD SeK- 
TEHCEB FOR ANALISIS 



CONTENTS 



vii 



FABT IV. 

HISTOKY AND DEKIVATION 



HISTORY 


223 


DERIVATION .... 


240 


Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes 


240 


Words formed by Composition 


241 


Nouns .... 


241 


Adjectives . . . . 


241 


Verbs 


242 


Adverbs 


242 


Words formed by the Addi- 




tion OF Prefixes and 




Suffixes 


242 


Prefixes of English Origin . 


242 



Suffixes of English Origin 
Prefixes of Latin Origin 
Suffixes of Latin Origin . 
Prefixes of Greek Origin 
Suffixes of Greek Origin . 



PAGB 

243 
246 
249 
251 
252 



Words formed by Internal 

Ghanoes . • . 253 



NOTES FOR TEACHERS . . 255 



INDEX 



. 261 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



PAET I. 

PABTS OF SPEECH. 

NOUNS. 

Exercise 1. 

a. In the following sentences pick out * all names of persons : — 

Jack^ is playing with Tom and Alfred. Mary and Edith are writing. 
Harold was reading to little Maggie. Howard and Kate are coming to- 
morrow. Mr. Jones is talking to Mr. Brown. Mrs. Cooper has gone abroad. 
Miss Percy and Miss Griffiths have just called. King James reigned after 
Queen Elizabeth. Captain Green waited for Major Owen. Can you tell me 
where Mayor Carrington lives ? We met Governor Knox yesterday. Wel- 
lington defeated Napoleon. 

b. Give the names of 

1. Ten boys. 

2. Ten girls. 

3. Ten persons whom you know. 

4. Ten persons about whom you have read. 

Exercise 2. 

a. In the following sentences pick out all names 

1. Of persons. 

2. Of places. 

Victor Uvea at Richmond. Carlton is in Minnesota. King Solomon 
reigned in Jerusalem. Mr. Bosworth has sailed for Germany. Washington 

* See * Notes for Teachers,' p. 255, Note 1. 

* See * Notes for Teachers,' p. 255, Note S. 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



crossed the Delaware. General Wolfe was killed outside Quebec. India 
belongs to the English. Tom Truscott walked from Berwick on-Tweed 
through Newcastle-on-Tyne to Ashton-under-Lyne. Moses led the Jews 
from Egypt to Canaan. Mrs. Jones took Minnie along Begent Street and 
Oxford Street to Hyde Park. There they met Miss Latham. The Dutch 
live in Holland. 

b. Give the names of 

1. Ten countries. 

2. Ten places in your own country. 

3. Ten places in which you have been. 

4. Ten streets. 

1. Captain Butler is the name of some sailor, not of every 
sailor ; Major Carey is the name of some soldier, not of every 
soldier ; Miss Scott is the name of some lady, not of every lady. 
Sailor, soldier and lady are as much names as Captain Butler, 
Major Carey t and Miss Scott. 

Exercise 3. 

a. In the following sentences pick out all names of persons : — 

The master is kind to his servants. Children, obey your parents. The 
boy hurt his sister. I met my uncle, aunt and three cousins to day. The 
king sent for his wise men. The princess was walking with her maids. 
The girl is nursing the baby. The scholars love their teacher. The hunts- 
man passed by. That child's father is a grocer. The general ordered hig 
Boldiers to charge. 

b. Give the names of 

1. Ten shopkeepers ; as grocer^ butcher, 

2. Ten relatives ; as father. 

3. Ten workmen ; as carpenter. 

Exercise 4. 

In the folUnoing sentences pick out all names 

1. Of persons. 

2. Of places. 

' The shepherd is in the field ; his sister is in the cottage. Our friends 
live in the town. The queen was in the parlor. The king was in his 
counting-house. The lad has gone to his home. The citizens fled into 
the country. The fisherman is at sea. A policeman was walking up the 



i 



NOUNS. 



street. The workman was digging in his garden. The girls were sent to 
school. The old man was waiting at the station for his son. The child 
fell over the cliff. 

Exercise 5. 

a. In the following sentences pick out all names of animals : — 

The dog ran after the sheep and lambs. The hawk killed three chickens. 
The oat is playing with her kittens. Drive the cattle home. The cows are 
grazing. Hares are timid. Puss caught a mouse. The thrushes and 
blackbirds were singing. The bird was picking up worms. An elephant is 
larger than a lion. Some parrots can talk. Ducks, geese, and swans can 
Bwim, but hens cannot. The hounds caught a fox. Swallows fly quickly. 

b. Give the names of 

1. Ten animals that live on land. 

2. Ten birds. 

3. Ten fishes. 

Exercise 6. 

a. In the following sentences pick out all names of things :^ 

The book is on the table. That jar contains ink. This pen is broken. 
There are three coats, two waistcoats, and six shirts in the trunk. A stone 
was thrown at the window. The bottle is full of water. The plough ia 
made of iron. Put some coal on the fire. The roof is covered with snow. 
The car is loaded with chairs. The tree has shed its leaves. The milk 
stood in a pan. Acorns grow on oaks. The picture hangs on the wall. Buy 
some tea, coffee, sugar and bread. 

b. Give the names of 

1. Ten things which are used in schooL 

2. Ten things which are used at home. 
8. Ten flowers. 

4. Ten vegetables. 

5. Ten articles of dress. 

6. Ten things which are sold by a grocer. 

2. Snow is white or has the quality of whiteness ; a stone 
has the quality of hardness ; a just man shows the quality of 
justice, and an honest man shows the quality of honesty. 

Exercise 7. 

a. In the following sentences pick out all names of qualities :— 

The brightness of the sun dazzles the eyes. The fire gives out warmth. 
The smoothness of the ice made the child slip. Honesty and justice are 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



virtues; dishonesty and injustice are vices. The rose is admired for its 
beauty and sweetness. The driver was punished for his cruelty. Solomon 
chose wisdom. His kindness made friends for him everywhere. That knife 
outs with the keenness of a razor. Will you have the goodness to help 
me ? His friendship must be kept. Tou can trust to their honor. The 
tiger is noted for courage, strength, and ferocity. 

b. Give the names of ten qualities. 

3. Walking, riding, and shooting are the names of actions. 

Exercise 8. 

a. In the folhmng sentences pick out all names of actions : — 

Tom is fond of walking. That man teaches writing. Bunning is healthy. 
Next summer we shall learn swimming. My brother will teach me rowing. 
Sailing is not always safe. Beading is interesting. She likes dancing. 
Forgetting is easier than learning. Hearing and obeying are different. 

b. Give the names of ten actions. 

4. In Orammar all names are called Nonns.^ 

Exercise 9. 
Pick out all the Nouns in the following sentences ;— 

a. Little Tom Tucker 

Sings for his supper. 
What shall he have to eat ? 
White bread and butter. 

The lion and the unicorn 
Were fighting for the crown. 

The dew was falling fast, the stars began to blink ; 

I heard a voice ; it said, * Drink, pretty creature, drink.* 

Then all through merry Islington 

These gambols he did play, 
Until he came unto the Wash 

Of Edmonton so gay ; 

And there he threw the Wash about 

On both sides of the way. 
Just like unto a trundling mop, 

Or a wild goose at play. 

* Jhun from the Latin nornm, a name, through the Old French noun or non (Modem 
Aench n^m). 



VERBS 5 

There was a little man. 

And he had a little gun, 
And his ballets were made of lead, lead, lead; 

He went to the brook. 

And he saw a little duck, 
And he shot it right through the head, head, head. 

b. The singing of the bird is sweet. The grief of the parents at the loss 
of their children was without bounds. Painting can only be mastered by 
long study. Art is long, but life is short. Pride goeth before destruction. 
He always told the truth. A little weeping would ease my heart. The 
quality of mercy is not strained. A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. 
Silence is golden. 

John Gilpin was a citizen 

Of credit and renown. 

Learn 
5. A Konn is the name of anything. 

Note. — ^It is the namie of the thing, and not the thing itself which 
is a Noun. Thus a desk is not a Noun, but the word deah is. 



VEKBS. 
Exercise 10. 



In the f ollowing sentences pick out first the Noun and then 
the word tuhich tells wtHafihe person or thing named * does : — 

Jack stops . Horses neigh. Sheep bleat. Birds fly. Fishes swim. 
Fire hums. Larks sing. Serpents sting. Dogs bark. Lions roar. Children 
play. Babies cry. Tom works. Fred learns* Gats mew. Stars shine. 
Mary reads. Mother watches. Owls hoot. Girls sew. Day dawns. Bain 
falls. Monkeys chatter. Gold glitters. Puss scratches. Mice nibble. 

Exercise 11. 

After each of the following Nouns place a word which tells 
what the perhon or thing named does : — 

Baby.^ Lightning. Flowers. William. Swallows. Soldiers. Lions. 
Percy. Bees. Bivers. Gas. Clerks. -4ttifi{&:. Asses. The ^ sun. The 

* See ' Notes for Teachers,' p. 255, Note 3. ' The word tht is no part of the Noon. 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



\ 



wind. The eagle. The ship. The master. The scholars. The bell. The 

dog. The moon. The child. The cat. The mouse. The baker. The 

tailor* The thief. The carpenter. The mower. The sower. The plough- 
man. The parrot. 

Exercise 12. 

The following words shotv doing ; place a Noun * before each. 

Blows. Howls. Walks. Plays. Fell. Low. Whistled. Shrieked. 

Sings. Sing. Sang, gjgigs. Slept. Bang. FJqsk^ Fight. Sail. Grows. 

Jg^];^ Sgrkg; Cried. Bloom. Buns. Mews. Laughed. Soar. Swim. 

Shines. Dawns. Sew. ^^jr^Jfib... Bgij g.^ Gallon s. Flashed* Cag^e. 

Came. Boar. 

6. Some words that show doing make complete sense when 
joined to Nouns, as, * The fire hums ; * * The wind roars,' Other 
words that show doing do not make complete sense when joined 
to Nouns, Thus, if some one says, * Arthur loves^' * Walter 
threw y' we ask, * Loves whom ? ' * Threw what ? ' 

Exercise 13. 

a. In the following sentences pick out the words which show 
doing : — 

Arthur loves his sister. Walter threw a stone. Tom broke a window. 
The servant sweeps the room. Masons build walls. The girl milks the 
cow. The dog bit the beggar. Artists paint pictures. A poet writes poems. 
The smith hammered the iron. Horses draw carts. Cows eat grass. Gats 
catch mice. The sexton tolled the bell. The horse kicked the groom. The 
grocer sells sugar. The baby heard the parrot. The hounds caught the 
fox. The bird forsook the nest. The gardener watered the flowers. Miss 
Wilson sang a ballad. Children love flowers. The clerk wrote letters. 

b. Fill in each blank in the following incomplete sentences 
with a word xvjiich shows doing : — 

. ^Mffiflff ^f^il^ay. The dog .... the thief. The banker .... a 
parse. Edgar ..... the ball. The boy .... the lesson. Masters .... 
scholars. Tabors .... coats. Bakers .... bread. Brewers .... 
bjeri ^e lady .... a sohg. The'^ bricklayer .... a wall. The girl 
«... a rose. The servant .... a dish. The cook .... tho meat. 
The hunter .... a tiger^ The farmei' . . . . the ground. Cats . • • • 
loioe. ■ '^*' 

^ TU» Nona may haye (^ before it. 



VERBS % 

7. A word which tells what a person or thing does is called 
a Verb.* 

8. To be,^ though not telling of doing, is also cajled a Verb. 

These are some * parts ' of the Verb to be : — Is, are, was, were, 
been, 

9. In the last two exercises examples were given of Verbs 
which did not make complete sense when joined to Nouns. The 
Verb to be rarely makes complete sense when so joined If I 
say * The boy is,' * Jennie t<;as,' * The strangers are,' you naturally 
ask, * Is, was, are, what ? ' The sense is complete if I say, * The 
boy is happy,' * Jennie was afraid,' * The strangers are sailors.' 

10. When, however, the Verb to be is used with the meaning 
to exist it makes complete sense after a Noun. Thus when we 
hear the words * God is ' (meaning * God exists or has being '), we 
do not expect any word to be added to finish the sentence. 

Exercise 14. 

a. In the following sentences pick out the parts of the Verb 
to be: — 

George is a blacksmith. The prisoners are guilty. The man was a 
soldier. Those birds were starlings. Grass is green. Homer was a poet. 
The horse is dead. The child is lame. The sun was bright. The stars are 
beautiful. Paris is a city. Washington was a generaL 

b. Fill in each of the following blanks with a part of the 
Ferftto'be:— 



t •■-■ 



The flowers .... pretty. Sugar .... sweet. John Gilpin .... a 
dtizen.^ Jackson .... our gardener. The boys .... 'at school yesterday. 
Ethel .... in Manchester last week. Shakespeare .... a great poet. 
^atford-on-Avon .... in England. Manitoba .... in Canada. Julius 
Caesar '. . . .a Boman general. Old King Cole .... a merry old soul. 
The Alps .... high. 

* Verb from the Latin fwr&-um, a word. The Verb gets its name from being the most im- 
l^ortant word — the word— in a sentence. See * Notes for Teachers,' p. 255, Note 4. 
' See * Notes for Teachers,* p. 266, Note 6. 



i 



B 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



11. Some part of the Verb to he is often used to help another 
word to tell of doing. The two words together form one Verb. 



Verb cownating of one word. 

The bird ginga. 

The dew feU &st. 

The stars shone. 

Flowers grow in the garden. 



Verb consisting of two words. 

The bird is singing. 
The dew was falling fast. 
The stars were shining. 
Flowers are growing in the 
garden. 



Exercise 15. 

Pick out the Verbs in the following sentences : — 



The dog carried a basket. 

The soldier thinks of his home. 

The masons build a wall. 

Tom studied his lesson. 

The fishermen ate their dinner. 

The lecturer spoke of his adven- 
tures. 
The servant shuts the door. 
The gambler loses money. 
The girls expect their aunt. 



The dog was carrying a basket. 
The soldier is thinking of his home. 
The masons are building a wall. 
Tom was studying his lesson. 
The fishermen were eating their 

dinner. 
The lecturer was speaking of his 

adventures. 
The servant is shutting the door. 
The gambler is losing money. 
The girls are expecting their aunt. 



12. These are some of the parts of the Verb to have : — Have, 
has, had. 

Exercise 16. 

a. In the following sentences pick out the Verbs : — 

The baby has a rattle. Each scholar has a pen. The girls have neck- 
laces. The farmer had nine horses. Those houses have large windows. 
Each wife had seven sacks. Many men have many minds. Frank had a 
pony. Little Johnny Pringle had a little pig. 

b. Fill the following blanks with parts of the Verb to have : — 

Each hand .... five fingers. George .... a present yesterday. The 
farmers .... too much rain last year. September .... thirty days. The 
little man .... a little gun. The king .... a great army. The men 
.... poor food. Mary .... a new frock. The books .... pret^ 
covers. The dog . • • • a bushy tail- 



VERBS 



13. The Verb to have is often used like the Verb to be in 
helping another Verb. 



Verb consisting of one word* 

The fisherman broke his leg. 

The farmer sold his pigs. 

The masters spoke to their men. 

The traveler lost his way. 



Verb consisting of two words. 

The fisherman has broken his leg. 
The farmer has sold his pigs. 
The masters have spoken to their 

men. 
The traveler had lost his way. 



14. The Verb to have is used with the Verb to be. 



Verb consisting of one word. 



The merchant was m London. 



The servants were in the field. 



The captain was hungry. 



Verb consisting of two words. 

The merchant has been in 

London. 
The servants have been in the 

field. 
The captain has been hungry. 



Exercise 17. 



Pick out the Verbs in the following sentences : — 

The soldier has done his duty. 
The brothers have helped the sisters. 
The tailor has altered the coat. 



a. The soldier did his duty. 

The brothers helped the sisters. 
The tailor altered the coat. 
The preacher spoke. 
The dogs chased a fox. 
The lady saw her uncle. 
The stranger walked to Boston. 
The sailors lost their ship. 

b My father was in Paris. 

Our cousins were here. 

The horse was in the stable. 

The girls were ill. 

The river is very full. 
> The baby was in the cradle. 



The preacher had spoken. 
The dogs have chased a fox. 
The lady had seen her uncle. 
The stranger had walked to Boston. 
The sailors have lost their ship. 

My father has been in Paris. 
Our cousins have been here. 
The horse had been in the stable. 
The girls had been ill. 
The river has been very full. 
The baby had been in the cradle. 



15. The Verb to have and the Verb to be are sometimes used 
together in helping another Verb, as, ' Mary has been reading ;' 



10 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



x:\ 



' The mowers Ifiave been cutting the hay,* ' The butcher had been 
buying sheep/ 

Exercise 18. 

Pick out the Verbs in the following sentences : — 

The wind has been blowing. The farmer has been looking at his com. 
The boys have been playing marbles. The horse had been standing under 
a hedge. This gentleman has been shooting hares. The baby had been 
screaming. Tour father has been talking about you. The mole-catchers 
have been setting traps. Those two rough boys had been fighting. The 
men had been working on the railway. Three children had been sliding on 
the ice. The gentleman has been running. The sailor has been visiting 
his friends. The young men had been swimming. The dog has been 
barking. 

16. The Verb to be is often used in helping another Verb to 
show tvhat is done to some person or thing ; as * The groom was 
kicked by a horse ; ' * The glass was cracked with a stone ; ' * The 
poor fellow's arm is broken ; ' * The good scholars were praised 
by their teacher.' 

17. In these, as in other cases, the Verb to have may be used 
with the Verb to be ; thus, * The thief has been catight \ * * The 
houses have been sold ; ' * The officer had been blamed.* 

Exercise 19. 

Pick out the Verbs in the following sentences : — 

a. The lawn is watered by the gardener. The letter was written by Tom. 
The child was trodden upon. Jane's apron was stained with ink. The lion 
was shot by the hunters. The girl was stung by a wasp. The ink was 
spilled by the baby. Two foxes were caught yesterday. The boards were 
sawed by the carpenter. My brother was blamed by the master. The books 
were brought by William. The fire was relit. Those pictures were painted 
by Turner. 

b. The lawn has been watered by the gardener. The letter has been 
written by Tom. The bear has been killed. Five of the boys have been 
stung by wasps. The trees had been blown down. The thief has been for- 
given. The books have been brought by William. The fire had been relit. 
The horses had been shod the day before. 



VERBS 



II 



18. The same statement may often be made in two ways, 
thus : — 



With, a Verb showing what a 
person or thing does, 

Bolton, the tailor, made this 

coat. 
Mr. Jones invites Jack to dinner. 

The carrier brought the boxes. 

The grooms a/re exercising the 

horses. 
The doctor has d/ressed the 

wound. 
The infants have strung the 

beads. 



With a Verb shounng what is 
done to a person or thing. 

This coat wa>s made by Bolton, 

the tailor. 
Jack is invited to dinner by Mr. 

Jones. 
The boxes were brought by the 

carrier. 
The horses are being exercised 

by the grooms. 
The womid has been dressed by 

the doctor. 
The beads have been strv/ng by 

the infants. 



Exercise 20. 

Change the form of statement in the following sentences : — 

a. John broke the window. The mowers are cutting hay. The masons 
have built a wall. The cat has scratched the little girl. The dog worried 
the cat. The rat has eaten the malt. The cow tossed the dog. The sexton 
tolled the bell. The cruel boy struck the donkey. Edgar has given a ball 
to his brother. The gardeners have pruned the trees. The horses have eaten 
their com. 

b. The boat was broken by the waves. Light is given by the sun. The 
pavements have been washed by the rain. Silk and cloth are sold by 
merchants. America was discovered by Columbus. The medicine was pre- 
pared by the doctor. Four sheep were killed by the tiger. Nuts were 
cracked by the monkeys. Honey is made by bees. The flowers were 
arranged by Mary. 

19. Shall J should J will, and would are used in helping other 
Verbs, as, * I ^ shall see my father to-morrow ; * * We ^ shall return 
next week ; ' * The postman will come soon ; ' * I * should stay at 
home if it rained ; * * The flowers would wither in the sun.'^ 

^ / and we and other words of the same kind will be .dealt with later. They are used like 
Nouns with Verbs. 

■ See * Notes for Teachers,* p. 265, Note 6. 



13 



LONGMANS* SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



20. To he and to have (either as helping words or as principal 
Verbs) may also be used with these helping words, thus : — 



Be and have as helping words. 



I * shall be working to-morrow. 

The horse toill be sold at the fair. 

We ' shall have left London to- 
night. 

The girl will have found her 
doll by that time. 



Be and have as principal 
Verbs. 

I ' shall be in York. 
We ^ should be late. 
We * shall have a treat then. 

The boy would have a prize. ^ 



Exercise 21. 

Pick out the Verbs in the following sentences : — 

a. The girl will write a letter. We shall read that book. I should eat the 
apple. The sun will rise at five,/ We shall begin French next week. The 
landlord will sell two farms. The mowers will finish by sunset. We shall 
stay at Brighton. The messenger will bring the parcel. The storm will 
abate soon. Fred would like this book. The glass would break. 

b. We shall have been to Paris. The mother will have been with the 
daughter. The children would have been early. We should have been late. 
I shall have a prize. The girls will have some skipping-ropes. This gardener 
will have some cherries. I should be glad if you would be there. Father 
will be here soon. She would be happy then. We shall have fine days now. 
Tom will have a new coat to-morrow. 

21. It often happens that when a Verb consists of two or 
more words the words do not follow one another immediately. 
Thus :— 



Sentence, 


Verb. 


The bird is not singing. 


Is singing. 


The dew was fast falling. 


Was falling. 


The soldier is sadly thii]king of his home. 


Is thinking. 


The fisherman has lately broken his leg. 


Has broken. 


The merchants have just returned. 


Have returned. 


My father has recently been in Paris. 


Has been. 


The boys have this morning been playing 


Have been playing. 


foot-ball. 




The lawn is daily watered. 


Is watered. 


The horses had in vain been sought. 


Had been sought. 



See p. 11, note L 



VERBS 13 



Exercise 22.^ 

Fick out the Verbs in the following sentences : — 

The child will willingly obey. We shall soon meet again. Our name is 
no more heard there. The foe was sullenly firing. The man will certainly 
come again. John has often written to us. The girls were then playing 
indoors. The porter was seriously injured. The rider has very quickly 
returned. Every jolly Jack will soon be coming back. The sea is clearly 
aeen from here. The story was not believed. Her friend has of late been 
much from home. The birds were merrily singing. The work was nearly 
finished. The tired child is soundly sleeping now. The wind was softly sighing. 
The storm is fiercely raging. The captain is greatly loved by his men. The 
prisoner was cruelly treated. The truant will not be punished.' The sun 
was brightly shining. The boots were not stolen. I have only just heard 
the news. The pupils are now saying their lessons. The sailors have been 
joyously dantiing. The servant would certainly lose her place. We shall 
probably sail on Wednesday. Brown has hardly ever called here. The 
mother was very much pleased with the news. The lad will ere long go 
home. The weather has lately been wet. 

22. When a question is asked, the words forming a Verb are 
often separated. Thus : — 



Question. 



Verb. 



Has found. 

Is doing. 

Have been milked. 



Has John found his knife ? 
Is William doing his lessons ? 
Have the cows been milked ? 

Exercise 23. 

Pick out the Verbs, 

Is the gardener pruning the trees ? Has the baker been here ? Is the 
teacher liked ? Were the pigs sold ? Have the men been digging potatoes ? 
Were those roses cut to-day ? Had the gentleman lost his hat ? Was the 
thief caught ? Is the water boiling ? Have the girls learned their poetry ? 
Has the window been broken ? Was the ship wrecked ? Has the crew been 
saved ? Do the birds sing ? Does the servant hear ? Did the dog bark ? 
Do the friends call to-day ? 

' See 'Notes for Teachers,' p. 256, Note 7. 



>4 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



lAfai 



23. Two Verbs sometimes come together ; the second is often 
preceded by to. Thus : — 



Fvrat Verb. 



Annie is going 

The teacher intends 

The boy hoped 



Second Verb, 



to play a tune. 
to give a lesson. 
to meet his sister. 



24. After can, must, let, bid, dare, and some other Verbs the 
second Verb is rarely preceded by to. Thus : — 



First Verb, 



The cobbler ca/n 

Edward must 

The colonel mill let the soldier 

The lady bade the boy 



Second Verb, 



mend the shoes. 
come in at once. 
go home. 
open the door. 



Exercise 24. 

Pick out the two Verbs in each of the following sentences : — 

a. The mother promised to return. The huntsman is trying to catch 
the horse. The father told his sons to listen. The aunt has come to stay. 
Little Will is learning to read. The clerk is going to write a letter. The 
traveler meani to return that way. A sower went forth to sow. The 
mowers have begun to cut the hay. Robert intends to walk home. Mary 
had hoped to receive a prize. The knight studied to please the king. 
The horse wanted to get out. Several boys wished to try. The chairman 
asked Mr. Jones to speak. Professor Johnson invited Mr. Evans to visit 
the museum. Do the painters intend to come ? Has the child begun to 
mend ? Were the girls pleased to see their mother ? 

b. The boys can swim. All men must die. Tom let his cousin see the 
nest. Jack made his dog bark. The people felt the house shake. I heard 
the thunder roar. The blacksmith hears the parson pray. The sick man 
bid send for a doctor. Nobody dared leap across the wild river. The father 
made Bichard keep the promise. Every citizen must obey the laws. The 
king can make a belted knight. The horse could not walk. Must I sing ? 
CSan the baby walk ? 



VERBS IS 



Learn 

25. ' A Verb is a word by means of which we can say some- 
thing concerning some person or thing.'— ilfason. 

26. Note. — A Verb of doing may say 

(1) What a person or thing does. 

(2) What is done to a person or thing. 

The Verb to he may 

(1) Say that a person or thing exists. 

(2) HeVp^ to say something about a person or thing. 

Exercise 25. 

In the following sentences pick out the Verbs : — - 

The dog barks. The horse gallops. The bird chirps. The clock ticks. 
The knife cuts. The cat mews. The teacher writes. The pigs feed. The 
tailor sews. The sea moans. The river runs. The tree waves. The butter- 
fly rests. The lion roars. 

Violets bloom in spring. The gas bums brightly. That fellow struck 
James. Mary rang the bell. Aunie arrived from Borne. The snake bit the 
baby. William conquered England. The miller ground the com. The 
little girl ran to her father. Horses draw the plough. 

Ash is tough. Oak is hard. Walking is healthy. Sleep is refreshing. 
The Cambrian Mountains are in Wales. The Bomans were good road- 
makers. The sailors are in a boat. The butter was quite fresh. The church 
was very old. 

There is a cat in the garden. There was a dish on the table. There 
were twenty people present. There are sheep on the hill. 

The fisherman has a new net. The woman has had a letter from her 
son. Cows have cloven hoofs. Jack is having his dinner. The farmer had 
forty pigs. The king had three sons. 

The old man was sitting under a tree. The house was burned. The 
roses were scattered by the wind. The carpet was beaten this morning. The 
mower was bitten by a snake. That book is liked. England was conquered 
by William. The corn was ground by the miller. The father was called by 
a little girl. The cheeses were eaten by mice. That fish is caught with a 
hook. The flowers were gathered by Ellen. 

* Ben 'Notes for Teachers,' p. 256, Note 8. 



I6 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

That oarving is mucli admired. The lady was nearly stunned. Snow 
had newly fallen. The son has just risen. The moon was almost setting. 
Amelia is always reading. Nelly had often driven the horse. The week . 
has quickly gone. The bells were merrily ringing. Has Bob heard the 
news ? Is William coming to-day? Were the goods sent home ? 

Willy pretended to be a bear. Fred told his brother to keep the knife. 
The people were going to hear a lecture. Ethel can play the violin. The 
messenger must return at once. The hunter wants to find a fox. This 
lesson must be learned. The children ought to mind their books. The boy 
dared not meet his father. The smith hears his daughter sing. The 
mother let the girl go home. 

The lion and the unicorn 

Were fighting for the crown ; 
The lion beat the unicorn 

All round about the town. 

Two little kittens one stormy night 
Began to quarrel and then to fight. 

A was an apple pie ; 

B bit it ; 

G cut it ; 

D dealt it ; 

E eat it : 

F fought for it. 

Jack and Jill went up the hill 
To fetch a pail of water. 

A fox jumped up on a moonlight night ; 

The stars were shining and all things were bright. 

Three wise men of Gk>tham 
Went to sea in a bowl ; 
If the bowl had been stronger 
My story would have been longer. 

The SAME Words as Nouns and Verbs. 

27. Some words may be both Nouns and Verbs. To decide 
what one of these words is in any given case consider how it is 
used. 

(1) If it be the name of anything it is a Noun. 



VERBS 



X7 



(2) If it say something about any person or thing it is a Verb. 



Nouns, 


Verba. 


The driver gave the horse a 


The winds blow. 


hard hUyvo. 




Waste makes want 


Some men waste and then wa/nt. 


The gardeners are bringing 


The gardeners water the flowers. 


water. 





Exercise 26. 

Say whether each of the words printed in italics is a Noun or 
a Verb. 



There was some talk about the business. Some people talk too much. 
Dogs bite. The thief had a bad bite. The bark of some dogs is worse than 
their bite. Dogs bark. The girls had a pleasant ride. The girls ride well. 
The walk was very enjoyable. Old men walk slowly. The laundress irons 
the shirt. The sailor was put in irons. Mr. Smith has too many irons in the 
fire. Birds fly. A fly is on the window. Good boys like work. Qood boys 
work hard. Names are Nouns. Harry names the Nouns. Cruel drivers 
whip horses. The driver has a new whip. Tom rose early. Tom plucked 
a rose. The teacher set the exercises. The pupil worked a set of exercises. 
Children honor their parents. Children give their parents honor. They 
scale high clifis in search of eggs. Put the butter in the scale. That plan 
is drawn to sca2e. There is a si^ above the door. We 5t^n our names. 



Exercise 27. 

Put each of the following words into two sentences ^ using it as 
a Noun in the first sentence and as a Verb in the second : — 

Harm. Wrong. Bight. Salt. Blind. Steel. Steep. Fast. Hit. 
Pinch. Bun. Love. Milk. Crowd. Shoe. Cover. Drink. Sleep. Guide. 
Call. Judge. Beat. Doubt. Dream. End. Beport. Part. Leave. Stroke. 
Hate. Guard. Change. Stone. Act. Tread. Betreat. Look. Sup. 
Murder. Mark. Place. Plant. Hurt. Wish. Fear. Hope. Spy. Dance. 
Fire. Buin. Sail. Paper. Butter. Prey. Wound. Manure. Blame. Pardon. 
Cheat. Watch. Knook. Silence. Smack. Pain. Welcome. Praise. 



iS LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



PBESONAL PEONOUNS. 

28. It would be tiresome to repeat a Noun again and again 
when speaking of any person or thing. It would not sound well, 
for instance, to say 'Edward bought a book; Edward gave the 
book to Edward's sister ; when Edward gave the book to Edward's 
sister, the sister thanked Edward.' It would sound much better 
to say ' Edward bought a book ; he gave it to his sister ; when 
he gave it to her she thanked him,^ 

Similarly, 



Instead of saying 
Maggie has learned Maggie's les- 
son. 
John saw the horse; the horse 

was in the horse's stable. 
Mrs. Evans saw the children. 
The children were in the gar- 
den; the children*s &tber had 
promised the children some 
fireworks. 



We say 
Maggie has learned hpr lesson. 

John saw the horse ; it was in its 

stable. 
Mrs. Evans saw the children. 

Hi^ were in the garden ; their 

&therhad promised them some 

fireworks. 



EzercueSS. 

Pick out the tcords which are used instead of Nouns j and say 
for what Noun each is used. 

Jack has anew watch ; he often looks at it. £dith plucked a pretty rose 
and gave jl to bfic mother. Ethel has seen Tom ; ^e met him in the park. 
Those dogs are well trained ; tbcjobej th^ master whofihespeaks to them. 
3ir. Smith spoke to the hojs as they were returning from their plaj- 
groond with their bats. The children said that the pony was theiis, but 
Edward said that it was his. while Jenny said that it was hers. The lads 
may pU^ iriien thiQf have done thfiir work. The serrant has gone for 
bread : ^ will be back with it soon. The master praised the girl because 
4ie wrote weU. The leapas did not like thi^ir dinner: thgr complained 
that it was badly cooked. Fred read the stories because hg found tlM*m 
inteflvstuig. TIm home ol a snail is its shell ; the home of a bird k 
ifetawt. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



19 



Exercise 29. 

Vut other words for the Nouns where possible. 

William has broken William's slate. The boys have lost the boys* ball. 
Jane has dressed Jane's doll ; the doll looks pretty now. Francis has gone 
home because Francis heard that Francis's father wanted Francis. The 
watchmaker mended the watch; the watchmaker found that the watch 
wanted a new spring. James has three pencils in James's hand ; the pencils 
are James's. The mother will let the mother's children play in the garden 
for a time; when the children's bed is ready the mother will call the 
children. When the jug fell the jug's handle was broken. Mr. Freeman's 
brother is l^e Mr. Freeman. People cannot visit the museum to-day; 
the museum is closed. 



-Tfct-C 



29. If Mr. Smith were speaking to Mr. Brown he would not 
say, ' Mr. Smith is looking for Mr. Smith's overcoat and Mr. 
Brown is looking for Mr. Brown's umbrella ; Mr. Smith hopes 
that Mr. Smith and Mr. Brown will soon find Mr. Smith's and 
Mr. Brown's things.' He would say * I am looking for my over- 
coat, and you are looking for your umbrella ; I hope that we shall 
soon find our things.' 

Similarly, 



Instead of saying 
There is Mr. Smith's;* will 

Mr. Brown hand it to Mr. 

Smith? 
And here is Mr. Brown's ; now let 

Mr. Smith and Mr. Brown go. 



Mr, Smith would say 
There is mine ; will you hand U 
to ms7 

And here is yours; now let us 
go. 



30. The person speaking does not use his own name, but says 
J, myy mitve, me. When speaking of himself and others he says 
we, our^ ours, us. 

Instead of the name of the person to whom he is speaking, 
he says you, your, yours. Formerly ye was also used. Formerly, 
too, the person speaking used sometimes to say (as certain people 
Bometimes say now) thou, thy, thine, thee, to the person spoken to. 



' See ' Notes for Teachers,' p. 256, Note 8L 



^\ 



I 



90 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 30. 

Pick out the words used instead of the names of the persons 
speaking or of the persons spoken to. 

I am going to school. You are a good boy. Have you seen your brother 
to-day ? I met my sister in the town. I like my new book ; do you like 
yourf> ^ My mother gave me a bat ; ask yours to give you a ball. The apple 
is mine. We shall see our parents soon. We had a letter from our uncle. 
Our aunt is going to send us a pony. Tom lives near us. When do your 
holidays begin ? Ours begin next week. Nathan said unto David, * Thou 
art the man.* Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. How long, ye 
simple ones, will ye love simplicity ? Where is thy father ? Why shouldest 
thou die before thy time ? The book is thine. I saw thee there. That thy 
trust may be in the Lord I have made known to thee this day. 

31. In speakmg of James, Mary, or the dog, we do not say 
• James hurt James,' * Mary hurt Mary,' * The dog hurt the dog.' 
We say instead * James hurt himself j' ' Mary hurt herself ,' * The 
dog hurt itself,' 

Similarly, we use instead of names the words myself , thyself 
ourselves, yourself, yov/rsehes, them^selves.^ 

Exercise 31. 

Pick out the words used instead of names. 

The boy got himself ready for school. The girl bought herself a new 
dress. The children made themselves late. We enjoyed ourselves. I gave 
myself a treat. The monkey saw itself in the glass. The plate did not 
break itself. The ladies dressed themselves in their best clothes. Tou can 
trust yourself to his care. You should have more faith in yourself. A 
selfish person loves himself too much. The travelers found themselves far 
from any house. 

32. A word which is nsed instead of a Houn is called a 
Pronoun.^ 

Exercise 32. 

Pick out the Pronouns. 

Mr. Smith called and he brought you a letter from your cousin. Yester- 
day was Griffith's birthday, and I sent him a present. The teacher has 

*■ See ' Notes for Teachers,' p. 256, Note 10. 
* Latin pro^ for, instead of. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 21 



heard our spelling and set us some algebra. Ellen has mended her apron. 
The horse fell and grazed its knee. Our parents love us. We deceive our- 
selves. Have you warmed yourself ? We have. If you prick us do we not 
bleed ? Philip talked about himself. Henry said that he could not help 
being late. Mary says that she has finished her sewing. The children had 
their dinner in the garden. My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou 
not. 

Suppose, my little lady. 

Your doll should break her head, 
Could you make it whole by crying 

Till your eyes and nose are red ? 

I, a child, and thou a lamb. 
We are callM by His name; 
Little lamb, God bless thee. 

* I wish, my old Aunt Dorking,' 

He began to her one day, 
' That you wouldn't sit all summer 

In your nest upon the hay.' 

And so Tom awoke and we rose in the dark 
And got with our bags and our brushes to work ; 
Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and warm ; 
So if all do their duty they need not fear harm. 

Good people all of every sort. 

Give ear unto my song, 
And if you find it wondrous short — 

It cannot hold you long. 

If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. 
Tou all do know this mantle ; I remember 
The first time ever Caesar put it on ; 
'Twas on a summer's evening in his tent, 
That day he overcame the Nervii. 

Kind souls, what, weep you, when you but behold 
Our Caesar's vesture wounded ? Look ye here. 
Here is himself, marr'd, as you see, with traitors. 

O night and darkness, ye are wondrous strong 1 
ye hard hearts, ye cruel men of Home I 

They name thee before me, 

A knell to mine ear ; 
A shudder comes o'er me — 

Why wert thou so dear 7 



S2 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 33. 

"Put Pronouns instead of Nouns where possible, 

a. The man cut the man's finger. The lady missed the lady's watch ; the 
lady had left the watch on the lady's table. Mr. Jones invited the poor men 
-that Mr. Jones might give the poor men a dinner. The coachman heard the 
coachman called. The thief hid the thief behind a tree. The gentlemai 
mounted the gentleman's horse. When the Normans got to the top of the 
hill the Normans halted. The merchants formed the merchants into a com- 
pany. The general placed the general at the head of the general's men. 
Harold had commanded that Harold's men should not quit the men's ranks, 
but when the men saw the men's enemies flying down the hill, the men for- 
got Harold's command and rushed after the enemies. 

b. Alfred ' met Alfred's mother with Edward's just now. Alfred and Ed- 
ward will see Alfred's and Edward's fathers in the park. Alfred heard that 
Edward had cut Edward's finger. Edward must be very tired after Edward's 
long walk. What an interesting lesson Alfred and Edward's teacher gave 
Alfred and Edward yesterday. Alfred's new knife is very sharp. Will 
Edward lend Alfred Edward's granmiar ? Alfred hit Alfred with Alfred's bat. 
Did Edward hurt Edward when Edward fell? 



Be and have. 

33. PaxtB of the Verb * to be ' :—Am, arty wast, wert, will be. 

34. Parts of the Verb * to have ' :—Hast, hadst, wilt have. 

Exercise 34. 

Pick out the Verbs. 

I am thy father's ghost. Thou wast the man. If thou wilt be here in 
time I shall be ready. If thou wert in the town I should be there too. I 
had a pony ; thou hast a horse. Whence hadst thou the book? I had it 
from London. Thou art a foolish fellow. I am sorry for thee. I shall be 
early, but thou wilt be late. I had a letter from home to-day. Thou wast 
young then. I shall have a scolding, and thou wilt have a prize. 

Learn 

35. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun.' 

' Alfre(3 is speaking to Edward. 

* See * Notes for Teachers,' p. ai56, Not« 11. 



ADJECTIVES 23 



ADJECTIVES. 

36. In the sentence ' John is a good boy,' good, shows the 
Hnd or ^ort of boy. 

Exercise 35. 

a. "Pick out the words which show the kind of person or 
thing. 

Jane is a clever girl. The tall man struck his head in entering the low 
carriage. Tom has a large slate. The friends went for a long walk. Jack 
is a dull boy. The black cow was in a large field. Little Edwin loves 
sweet flowers. Bipe apples grew in the old garden. The green com is 
waving in the gentle breeze. The kind father bought some new clothes for 
the good children. The hot sun will ripen the sour fruit. Fred made big 
blots on the clean page. The oaken bucket fell into the deep well. The 
foolish man would not follow wise advice. 

Little drops of water, 

Little grains of sand, 
Make the mighty ocean 

And the pleasant land. 

b. Put before each of the following Nouns a word showing 
the kind of person or thing : — 

Boy. Man. Boad. Toy. Enife Pig. Slate. Cat. Bird. Grass. 
Clouds. Bose. Hands. Fire. Point. Girl. Soldier. Writer. Pen. 
Lik. Butter. Father. Merchant. Shilling. Bull. Walk. Scene. Lake. 
Sea. Cliff. Tree. 

Exercise 36. 

Pick out the words which show how many persons or things 
are spoken of. 

a. A man has one mouth, two eyes, and thirty-two teeth. The hand has 
five fingers. The landlord owns six houses, and each house has ten rooms. 
James bought nine apples. The cat caught seven mice. Thirty days hath 
September. The grocer sells fourteen pounds of sugar for one dollar and 
ten cents. Mr. Smith has three sons and four daughters. Elizabeth 
reigned forty -five years. Forty rods make one furlong. 



24 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

b. All men must die. There were few cherries on the tree. Have you 
any apples ? I have no apples. There were few persons at church. The 
soldier was wounded in both legs. Most dogs like the water. In the city 
are many mansions. There are several ships in the harbor. Some men 
were digging. All roads lead to Rome. Few men ventured out. Any 
horses will do. There are no horses in the stable. Both doors arn closed. 
Most boys like base-ball ; some boys can play it well. Several balls were lost. 

Exercise 37. 

Pick out the words which show how mnch. 

The man had little sense. There was much corn in Egypt. Give me 
some bread. Mr. Jones has more money than Mr. Brown but less learning. 
The thief made no noise. The mason could not find any mortar. Jack 
has most time. Has the tailor any change ? The child wasted much ink. 
There was little water in the well. I have lost some paper. More haste 
less speed. Much cry and little wool. 

Exercise 38. 
Pick out the words which show in what order. 

Edward is the sixth boy in the fifth class ; his sister is the first girl in 
the second class. Our father returned on the twenty-fifth day of January. 
December is the twelfth month in the year. The preacher's text was the 
ninth verse of the eighth chapter of the first Epistle to the Corinthians. 
The general ordered every tenth man to be shot. The king died in the 
twentieth year of his reign and the fiftieth year of his life. This is the last 
time I shall ask you. 

37. Some words are joined to Nouns to point out what person 
or thing is meant, as * This man, * * That woman,' * These books,' 
• Those slates,' * Yonder house.' 

Exercise 39. 

Pick out the words which say what person or thing. 

Will you give me that hoop for this knife ? Those hats were hanging on 
these pegs. The old man lives in yonder cottage. That dog bit this little 
girl. These apples grew on those trees. Yon horse belongs to this man. 
That cart is broken. These hens and tho ;e ducks will be sold to-morrow* 



ADJECTIVES 



35 



38. A word which shows what kind of person or thing is 
called an A^jective.^ 

39. A word which shows of how many persons or things we 
ar^ speaking is called an Adjective. 

40. A word which shows of how mnch of a thing we are 
speaking is called an Adjective. 

41. A word which points out of what person or thing we 
are speaking is called an Adjective. 

Exercise 40. 

Pick out the Adjectives and say to what Noun each is 
ioined. 

Two legs sat upon three legs 
With one leg in his lap. 

Old Mother Hubbard went to the cupboard 
To get her poor dog a bone. 

Here comes a poor woman from baby-land 
With three small children in her hand. 

Little Polly Flinders 

Sat among the cinders, 
Warming her pretty little toes. 

Her mother came and caught her 

And scolded her little daughter 
For spoiling her nice new clothes. 

She gave them some broth 
Without any bread. 

There was a fat man of Bombay 
Who was smoking one sunshiny day. 

All work and no play 
Makes Jack a dull boy. 

There was a crooked man and he went a crooked mile, 
And he found a crooked sixpence beside a crooked stile. 

The sick man from his chamber 
Looks at the twisted brooks. 

* From the Latin ac^jectus, put near or added to [adjeetiu is the p.p. of adjicerey which 
comes from ad, near, and^ooere, to throw, pat]. The Adjeotiye gets its name from being 
pnt near or added to the ^ouu. 



26 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

* Out with those boats and let us haste away/ 
Cried one, * ere yet yon sea the bark devours.* 

There rose no murmur from our ranks, no thought 
By shameful strength unhonored life to seek. 

There's a merry brown thrash sitting np in a tree. 

Down in a green and shady bed 
A modest violet grew. 

Three little kittens, one stormy night, 
Began to quarrel and then to fight. 

* I will have that mouse,* said the elder son ; 

' You wtyrCi have that mouse,* said the little one. 

No mate, no comrade Lucy knew ; 
She dwelt on a wide moor. 

Mark yon old mansion frowning through the trees. 

42. The Adjectives an or a and tlfie are often called Articles.^ 

An or a is used when we do not say of what one we are 
speaking ; the is used when we are speaking of some particular 
one ; as, * I have an apple ' (some apple) ; * I have a box ' {sorne 
box) ; *I have ike apple which Tom gave me,* *I have the box 
which I bought.* 

43. An Adjective does not always come hejore the Noun to 
which it is joined. 

(a) The Adjective is separated from the Noun by a part of the 
Verb to he, as * Grass is green ; ' * Violets are hlue ; ' * The child 
WAS happy ; ' * The day will be fine ; ' * The weather has been 
wet' 

* From the Latin arttculus, a small joint. These words may be considered as the small 
joints in a sentence. 

Dr. Abbott [' How to Parse,* p. zlz.] defines Article aa *A name 

(a) Correctly giren by the Greeks to their Article, because it served as a joint 
nniting sereral words together. 

(&) Then loosely applied by the Latins (as was natural, seeing they had no Article) 
to any short word, whether Verb, Conjunction, or Pronoun. 

<c) Foolishly introduced into Eni^lisk and once used to denote the and ••* 



ADJECTIVES 27 

(i) In poetry the Adjective sometimes comes after the Noun, 
even when the sentence contains no part of the Verb to be; as, 

Gave thee clothing of deUght, 
Softest clothing, woolly, bright. 

Who that e'er could understand 

The rare structure of a hand 

With its branching fingers ^n« . • • • 

Eacercise 41. 

Pick out the Adjectives and say to which Noun each is 
joined. 

a. The boy is ill. The river was broad and deep. The sun was bright. 
Boses are red or white. The day is cold and dark and dreary. The girl's 
face was dirty. The oranges were dear. The doll has been pretty. The 
sea is rough. Tour mother will be glad. The children were naughty. The 
noise was loud. The birds were young. 

b. We sat within the farmhouse old. 

Whose windows looking o'er the bay 
Gave to the sea-breeze, damp and cold, 
An easy entrance, night and day. 

Shining eyes, very blue, 

Opened very wide ; 
Yellow curls, very stiff, 

Hanging side by side ; 
Chubby cheeks, very pink, 

Lips red as holly ; 
Ko ears and only thumbs, 

That's PoUy's Dolly. 

Merry eyes, very round ; 

Hair crimped and long ; 
Two little cherry lips 

Sending forth a song ; 
Very plump and rather short, 

Grand ways to Dolly; 
Fond of games, full of fun, 

That's Dolly's Polly. 

There dwelt a miller, hale and boldt 
Beside the Biver Dee. 



28 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

The way was long, the wind was cold, 
The minstrel was infirm and old ; 
His withered cheek and tresses gray, 
Seemed to have known a better day. 

I once had a sweet little doll, dears, 

The prettiest doll in the world ; 
Her cheeks were so red and so white, dears. 

And her hair was so charmingly carled. 

The days are cold, the nights are long, 
The north wind sings a doleful song. 

Little bird with bosom red, 
Welcome to my humble shed. 

Where the pools are bright and deep. 
Where the gray trout lies asleep. . . . 

O, green was the corn as I rode on my way. 

And bright were the dews on the blossoms of May. 

Glorious fountain. 

Let my heart be 
Fresh, changeful, constant, 

Upward like thee. 

He strippeth his arms to his shoulders strong. 

In Californian mountains 

A hunter bold was he, 
Keen his eye and sure his aim 

As any you should see. 

Then ceased, and all is wail 
As they strike the shattered sail 
Or in conflagration pale 
Light the gloom. 

44. As a Pronoun is used instead of a Noun, an Adjective 
may be joined to a Pronoun ; as, * I am happy,' * Thou art young ^^ 
* He is unwise^' * We are glad,' * I'ou are late^' * They will be 
kind.* 



ADJECTIVES 29 



Exercise 42. 

Fick out the Adjectives and say to what Pronoun each is 
joined. 

He was clever. I am dull. She was rude. We shall be late. Ton are 
greedy. Thoa wast unkind. He will be rich. Ton are naughty. It is 
wild. She was pretty. He is fierce. I am good. She once was blooming 
and young and fair. When my mother died I was very young. And so he 
was quiet. It left me all dripping and chiU. Ton find me ill. I saw him 
poor. They think as strange. We believe them to be true. l%e news 
made her strong. 

And she was fair and very fair, 

Her beauty made me glad. 

45. A word which is generally a Noun may sometimes be 
used as an Adjective ; as, * The morning sun ; ' * A silver cup ; ' 
* The church spire.' 

Exercise 43. 

Pick out the Adjectives and say to what Noun each iS joined* 

The village grocer was named Jones. Anchovies are made into a fish 
sance. We sleep on a feather bed. The herring fishery is carried on at 
Yarmouth. The wedding guest he beat his breast. The clerg3rman preached 
a funeral sermon. Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower. Close the 
street door. 

The moon that once was round and full 

Is now a silver boat. 

Sweet to the morning traveler . 
The song amid the sky. 

And in the churchyard cottage I 
Dwell near ihem with my mother. 

Exercise 44. 

a Say whether the words printed in italics are Nouns or 
Adjectives, 

He was a base man. Show me the hose of the triangle. The cook 
melted Hie fat The cook was fat. The savage was a cannibaL Iht tiger 



i 



30 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

is a savage beast. The mistress will be cross. There was a cross on 
the grave. That is a new kind of toy. Mary is kind. Iron is common. 
The ass was grazing on the common, A last is used by a shoemaker. 
Tom is the last boy in the class. There was a great calm. The day is 
calm, I like a quill pen. The quill was from a goose's wing. The table 
is made of pine ; it is a pine table. Steel is made from iron. That is a 
steel chain. 

b. Put each of the following words into two sentences, using 
it as a Noun in the first sentence and as an Adjective in the 
second : — 

Fast. Spring. Stout. Fat. Brass. Copper. Iron. Silver. Zinc. 

Tin. Stone. Oak. Mahogany. Straw. Bread. Good. Deep. Plain. 

Slate. Dinner. Blind. Holland. Hollow. Light. Mimic. Plane. Pug. 
Sage. Salt. Silk. Linen. Cloth. Sound. 

Exercise 46. 

a. Say whether the words printed in italics are Adjectives or 
Verbs, 

Pharaoh dreamt of seven lean kine. Lazy men lean against posts. 
The top of the table is smooth. Laundresses smooth shirts with an iron. 
The farmer is going to thin his turnips. The farmer is not thin. Your 
hands are dirty ; do not dirty your face. The silver is not clean ; tell Jane 
to clean it. Children blunt their knives by sharpening slate pencils. Their 
knives are blunt. You are idle ; it is wrong to idle your time away. The 
travelers long for drink. The way seemed long. The slave could not/re« 
himself. The slave is now free. The hearers were weary ; the lecturer was 
likely to weary everyone. 

b. Put each of the following words into two sentences y using 
it as a Verb in the first sentence and as an Adjective in the 
second : — * 

Warm. Blind. Dry. Wet Secure. Bcrand. Steel. Salt. Right. 
Wrong. Better. Lame. Smart. Steep. Clear. Hollow. Humble. Left. 
Level. Lower. Light. Loose. Fast. Munic. Mock. Open. Shut. 
Plane. Boast. Second. Separate. Sham. Slow. Sober. Sound. Sour, 
steady. 

* See 'liotes for Teachers,' p. 256, Note IS, 



PARSING 



31 



Learn 

46. An Adjective is a word joined to a Noun (or Pronoun) 
to show what sort of, how many, how much, or which persons 
or things are spoken of.^ 

Or 

* An Adjective is a word joined to a Noun to limit its appli- 
cation.'— ^Bam. 



Parsing. 

47. The classee into which words are divided are called Parts 
of Speech. Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns and Adjectives are four of 
these classes. In order to make up our minds to which class a 
word belongs we must notice what work it does in a sentence. 
Thus, in the sentence 



John hroTce his new slate 





Is a name 


Therefore it is 


John 


A Noun 


broke 


Tells something about John (or tells 
what John did) 


A Verb 


hifl 


Stands instead of John ^ 


A Pronoun 


new 


TeUs the sort of slate 


An Adjective 


slate 


Is a name 

That vnndow has a blind. 


A Noun 




Says which window 


Therefore it is 


That 


An Adjective 


window 


Is a name 


A Noun 


haR 


Tells something about the window 


A Verb 


a 


Is used before the Noun blind 


An Adjective 


blind 


Is the name of what the window has 


A Noun 



» See 'Notes for Teachers,' p. 256, Note 13. 
* See 'Notea iox TeaolienC p. ^b^^lS^oXAY^ 



33 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 





This poor ma/n is hUnd. 






Says which man 


Therefore it is 


This 


An Adjective 


poor 


Says what kind of man 


An Adjective 


man 


Is a name 


A Noun 


is 


Helps to tell something about the 
man 


A Verb 


Mind 


Says what sort of man 


An Adjective 




Some savages hUnd their prisonert 


r. 




Says how many savages 


Therefore it is 


Some 


An Adjective 


savages 


Is a name 


A Noun 


blind 


Tells something about the savages (or 






tells what they do) 


A Verb 


their 


Stands instead of the Noun savages 


A Pronoun 


prisoners 


Is a name 

Exercise 46. 


A Noun 


Say what Tart of Speech each word is in the following sen" 
)ences .*— 


ri/rwww • 


The cook sold the fat. 
The cook was fat. 
Our walk was pleasant. 
The baby can walk. 
My new pen is broken. 
Job had great patience. 






The thin farmer is going to thin his turnips. 




Mary has been visiting her uncle. 






Father bought me a fine doll. 






The pretty bird is singing a sweet song 


• 




Our aunt gave us a black pony. 






Frank hit his finger ; he hurt it. 






That lamb has lost its mother. 





ADVERBS 33 



ADVERBS. 

48. In the sentence * William had landed then,' the Verb is 
had landed^ and then shows when William had landed. 

* • 

Exercise 47. 
l^ick out the words joined to Verbs to show when. 

The agent called again. We lived in the country then. Your father is 
sleeping now. Mr. Brown was formerly our neighbor. My sister will come 
presently. The children went to school immediately. The fire was extin- 
(^aished afterwards. Day will break soon. The carriage has come already. 
The ship sailed yesterday. That friend was always faithful. The fireman is 
ever ready. The soldier never returned. I often saw him formerly, but 
he seldom comes now. Mr. Watts sometimes visits us ; he is coming 
to-morrow. 

49. In the sentence * The boy stood here,' stood is the Verb, 
and here shows wh&re the boy stood. 

Exercise 48. 
Piclc out the words joined to Verbs to show where. 

My cousin lodged there. They looked everywhere for the little girl hut 
found her nowhere. The horse is yonder. The policeman looked behind. 
The regiment marched forth. Go hence. We look before and after. The 
sailor went below. The old man walked hiliher. There he was safe. Duncan 
oomes here to-night. Ye shall not go hence except your youngest brother 
opme hither. We went to Old Point Comfort and thence to Hampton. 

60. In the sentence * The river was running swiftly,' was 
running is the Verb, and swiftly shows how the river was 
running. 

Exercise 49. 

Pick out the words joined to Verbs to show how. 

The dog harks loudly. The birds are flying quickly. The aoldiftx '^^a 
badly womided. The fire is burning brigYiUy. li«bt\!& ^ai^^^^^*^. ^'vSwesa. 



34 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

swim 80. The boy held his hand thus. The child can write well. Rain fell 
heavily. The storm was raging furiously. Mary sings beautifully. The 
tired traveler slept soundly. The soldiers fought gallantly. Ill weeds 
grow apace [= quickly]. The girls sewed Deatly. The doctor dressed the 
hurt carefully. Our uncle treated us kindly. We heard the noise distinctly. 
The wanderer was sadly thinking of home. Tom was industriously studying 
his lessons. The lecturer spoke earnestly. My brother was blamed unjustly. 
The horses had been shod skilfully. 

61. Sometimes a word is joined to a Vero to show how fax 
the speaker believes what the Verb tells ; thus : — 



John will certainly come. 
John will not come. 
John will perhaps come. 



The speaker believes firmly. 
The speaker disbelieves. 
The speaker is doubtfuL 



Exercise 50. 

PicTc out the words joined to the Verbs to slum how far the 
speaker believes what the Verbs tell. 

Tour father is certainly alive. She must surely know the truth. Her 
story was verily strange, but it is undoubtedly true. I say that I am unques- 
tionably correct. Truly he knows. Truly he knows not. Thou shalt surely 
die. Probably your uncle can tell you. He certainly will not be able to teU 
me. The boy is undeniably clever. 

62. In the sentence * Your teacher was greatly pleased/ was 
f leased is the Verb, and greatly is joined to it to show how mtcch 
the teacher was pleased. 

53. In the sentence * I thrice presented him a kingly crown,' 
presented is the Verb, and thrice shows how many times I pre- 
sented. 

Exercise 51. 

Pick out the words joined to Verbs to show how much or how 
many times. 

This child was little hurt, that child was hurt much. The sick man has 
almost recovered. We can scarcely see in this twilight. The merchant was 
exceedingly annoyed. The boys enjoyed themselves thoroughly. The cus- 
tomer was less pleased with the cloth than with the silk ; she was least pleased 
IP7/27 the fiaJico. The dress is quite finished and the hat is nearly finished. 



ADVERBS 



35 



We seldom see him now. I once met him in the High Street. Mr. Bobinson 
has been to Constantinople twice. The com increased thirtyfold. Our 
kindness was repaid fourfold. Thrice he essayed [» tried] to speak. 

64. A word which is joined to a Verb to show when, where, 
or how, is called an Adverb.^ 

55. A word which is joined to a Verb to show how far the 
speaker believes what the Verb tells is called an Adverb. 

56. A word which is joined to a Verb to show how much, or 
how many times, is called an Adverb. 

67. Adverbs which show hmjo much or how many times, are 
joined to Adjectives and to other Adverbs as well as to Verbs ; 
thus : — 



Tom is a brave boy. 
Tom is a very brave boy. 
Tom is a thoroughly brave boy. 
The story is true. 
The story is quite true. 
The story is hardly true. 



AdA)erh, 


Adjective, 




brave 


very 


brave 


thoroughly 


brave 




true 


quite 


true 


hardly 


true 



Mary speaks loudly. 
Mary speaks too loudly. 
Mary speaks quite loudly. 
Mary speaks loudly enough. 



Adverb. 


Adverb, 


too 

quite 

enough 


loudly 
loudly 
loudly 
loudly 



Exercise 62. 

Pich out the Adverbs joined 

(a,) To Adjectives, 
(b.) To other Adverbs, 

to show how much or how many times, 

a. Jane is a very clever girl. Tom has an exceedingly large dog. The 
friends went for a rather long walk. Jack is a thoroughly doll boy ; his brother 

* r^atin ad, to. Jd-t?er6 therefore equals /o-rer6. T\\etfe\«k\,\xycx\Ki\»'^^«Si,^aa4!k.^-"^«^"«3^ 
the Verb is much like that between the Ad-iectiTe aii<i\ih&'£^Qaiu 



36 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



is far brighter. The sun was terribly hot. Nearly all dogs like the water. 
Lead is much heavier than cork. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Are you 
so glad ? The man had very little sense. The com is quite ripe. How 
beautiful it is 1 The fellow must be utterly bad. You are not sufficiently 
careful. The poor woman was hopelessly ill, and she was unspeakably glad 
to see her son. Tom is a most cheerful companion. 

b. I know him very slightly. James left quite lately. The child is much 
more happy now. I am too much pleased to be able to express my pleasure 
quite clearly. We felt very much obliged. How brightly the moon shines ! 
You write too quickly; you should write much more slowly. The class 
should not sing so loudly. We have only just now heard the news. The boy 
is far too lazy to work, and much too conceited to take advice. You have 
waked me too soon.* 

68. Yes, yea^ ay^ no and nay, though never joined to Verbs, 
Adjectives, or Adverbs, are generally called Adverbs.^ 

Learn 
59. An Adverb is a word joined to a Verb, Adjective, or 
other Adverb to add to its meaning.^ 

Exercise 53. 

PicTc out the Adverbs. 

Up rose old Barbara Frietohie then. We buried him darkly. Lightly 
they'll talk of the spirit that's gone. Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 
When Greek meets Greek then comes the tug of war. Grieve not, my 
child ; chase all thy fears away. I will obey willingly and gladly. Let us 
go hence. The blade springs upward, and the root strikes downward. 
Little he'll reck [= care]. He will certainly come again. Hereafter you 
shall know more. The poor always ye have with you. Never despair. 
The workmen are paid weekly. The man is hopelessly stupid. The air is 
piercingly cold. Your father wiU never consent. They were imprisoned 
unjustly. Everywhere the lanes are bordered by trees. Where the bee 
sucks there suck I. The ball fell yonder. I never thought of it before. 
Your sister cannot be here yet. First he consented and then he would not 
consent. When you durst do it then you were a man. The weather was 
unusually cold. That advice is truly wise. He is probably disappointed. 
That answer is most foolish. I am now much better ; I hope to be quite 
strong very soon. The mother was terribly unhappy. William is less friendly 
than Edward. The day was extremely fine. I was very much obliged to 
your father; how very kind he was. You may do that once too often. 

* See ' Notes for Teachers,', p. 256, Note 16. 
" See ' Notes for Teachers,* p. 256, Note 16. 

* JBee 'Notes for Teachers.' p. 257, Note 17. 



ADVERBS 37 

Bain, rain, go away, 
Come again another day. 

Oh 1 mother dear, we very much fear 
That we have lost our mittens. 

The King of Hearts called for the tarts 
And beat the Knave full sore. 

As [= when] I was going to St. Ives, 
I met a man with seven wives. 

The man in the moon 
Game down too soon. 

There was a man of our town, 
And he was wondrous wise. 

I like little Pussy, 
Her coat is so warm. 

Bun replied, 

* You are doubtless very big.* 

But we steadfastly gazed on the face that was deady 
And we bitterly thought of the morrow. 

I do remember well where I should be, 
^ And there I am. 

Exercise 64. 

Make sentences containing the following Adverbs : — 

Here. There. Hither. Hence. Lately. Often. Before. Once. 
Now. Soon. Seldom. Little. Scarcely. Much. Very. Not. Truly. 
Certainly. Thrice. Surely. Quickly. Bravely. Softly. Rightly. 

Exercise 55. 

Say what Pa/rt of Speech each word is in the following sen- 
tences, thus : — 

Day will break soon. 



Day 

mU break 

soon. 



Is a name 

Tells what the day will do 

Shows when the day will break 

My sister will come presently. 
That friend was always faithfuL 
There he was qm.te bsIq. 



Therefore it is 

A Noun. 
A Verb. 
An Adverb. 



38 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



111 weeds grow apace. 

Too many cooks spoil the broth. 

Thoa shalt surely die. 

This child was very little hurt 

Tom has an exceedingly large dog. 

We buried him darkly. 

Lady Moon, Lady Moon, where are you roving V 

Little white lily smells very sweet. 



PREPOSITIONS. 

60. The book is in the desk. 
The book is on the desk. 
The book is under the desk. 
The book is beside the desk. 
The book is behind the desk. 
The book is near the desk. 

Here the words in, on, under, beside, behind^ and near show 
(ihe relation between the book and the desk. 

81, Mr. Brown has traveled in Spain. 

Mr. Brown has traveled through Germany. 
Mr. Brown has traveled across Europe. 
Mr. Brown has traveled over India. 

Here the words in, through, across, and over show the re- 
lation between the traveling and Spain, Germany, Europe, 
and India. 

62. Sheffield is famous /or its cuflery. 
Oxford is proud of its university. 
The firuit is pleasant to the eye. 

Here the word for shows the relation between the fame 
and the cutlery ; of shows the relation between the pride and 
the university ; and to shows the relation between the pleasure 
and the eye. 

63. In the first set of examples each word showing relation 
standa bai^ween a Noun and a Noun ; in the Second set it stands 



PREPOSITIONS 39 



between a Verb and a Noun ; in the third set it stands between 
an Adjective and a Noun. Thus, whether the word before it be 
a Noun, Verb, or Adjective, the word following it is a Noun. 

64. Words showing relation may also be followed by Pro- 
\ nouns; as: — 

The man is behind me. 

Your father arrived before you. 

I was Sony for them. 

65. Here are further examples of words standing before 
Nouns or Pronouns, and showing the relation between the things 
named and something else : — 

Whittington became Lord Mayor of London. 

The postman is at the door. 

I shall be luith you at noon. 

The dog ran after the beggar. 

The boy fell off the bridge. 

The message came from the queen. 

The sword of the soldier was by his side. 

Exercise 56. 

Pick out the words placed before Nouns or Pronouns to show 
relation as in the examples just given. 

The man is in the house. The children stayed at Brighton during 
the holidays. The tree was struck by lightning. The pupil was absent 
without leave. The mother was thinking about the best food for her sick 
child. The cow jumped over the moon. The dish ran away with the spoon. 
Look behind you. The horse walked round the field. The band was play- 
ing opposite the window. Germany is beyond the ocean. The top of the 
mountain is above the clouds. He will not act against my wishes. She 
lent this book to me. I brought these flowers for you. 

And in the churchyard cottage I 
Dwell near them with my mother. 

66. A word which is placed before a Noun or Pronoun to 
show the relation between the thing named and something e!se 
is called a Preposition.^ 

• The word means a placing before, from the Latin, prae, V«iat^^ «dA powX-ma V:s:^« *!*" 
poneref to place), placed. 



40 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 57. 

l^ick out the Prepositions. 

There was an owl lived in an oak. Wee Willie Winkie runs throngh the 
town. Old Mother Hubbard went to the cupboard. A little cock-sparrow 
sat on a tree Three mice went into a hole to spin. Jack and Jill went 
np the hill. The mouse ran up the clock. Here we go round the mulberry 
bush. He made them dance out of Scotland into France. Tom ran crying 
down the street. What shoes are made without leather ? We walked along 
the path towards the village. The church stands among the trees. The 
shepherd was amidst his flock. We have been in Washington since Christ- 
mas, and shall stay till Easter. Adown the glen rode armed men. 

Two legs sat upon three legs 
With one leg in his lap. 

I'll tell you a story 
About Jack-a-Nory. 

The spirit of your fathers 
Shall start from every wave. 

The flame that lit the battle's wreck 
Shone round him o'er the dead. 

On sea, on land, we had our colors, sir, 
To keep without a spot. 

They sleep as well beneath the purple tide 
As others under turf. 

The castle's bound 
I wander round 
Amidst the grassy graves. 

Up the airy mountain, 

Down the rushy glen. 
We daren't go a-hunting 

For fear of little men. 

Old John, with white hair, 
Does laugh away care. 
Sitting under the oak. 
Among the old folk. 



PREPOSITIONS 41 



67. Some words may be used either as Adverbs or as Preposi- 
tions ; thus : — 



Ab Adverbs, 



Jack and Jill went uj^. 
Jack fell down. 
"hlLdkry walked in. 
The servant was standing 
behind 



As Prepositions. 



Jack and Jill went up the hilL 
Jack fell doum the slope. 
Mary walked in the garden. 
The servant was standing 
behind me. 



Ck)me on, ] Come on deck. 

ea Note : 1 

(1) That an Adverb always goes with some Verb.^ In the 
examples just given — 

up goes with the Verb went ; 
down goes with the Verb fell ; 
in goes with the Verb walked ; 
behind goes with the Verb was standing ; 
on goes with the Verb come. 

(2) That a Preposition always has a Noun or Pronoun follow- 
ing it. In the examples just given — 

up is followed by the Noun hill ; 
dovm is followed by the Noun slope ; 
in is followed by the Noun garden ; 
behind is followed by the Pronoun me ; 
on is followed by the Noim deck. 

(8) That an Adverb can generally be moved by itself^ from 
one part of the sentence to another, but a Preposition can only be 
moved with the Noun or Pronoun following it. Thus we can 

say : — 

He often comes to London ; 
He comes often to London ; 
He comes to London often ; or 
Often he comes to London ; 

' See 'Notes for Teacherfs* p. 267, Note 18. 

*The Adrerlw whioh go with Adjectires or other Adrerba are not used as Frepositiona. 

*Ti)is is not true of Interrogatire or CoojnnotiTe Adverbs. 



42 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

but if we move to we must move London with it ; thus : — 

He to London often comes ; 
To London he often comes. 

Exercise 58. 

a. Say of each word printed in italics whether it is an 
Adverb or a Preposition. 

Stand by. Stand by me. The child peeped in. The child was in the 
field. Tom lagged behind. The garden is behind the house. The groom 
was thrown off. The groom was thrown off his horse. The spire is above 
the church. The spire points above. He told me not to walk on. He told 
me not to walk on the grass. We went up and down. We went up and 
doum the street. Look around. Look a/round you. The boatman rowed 
across. The boatman rowed across the harbor. The ship glides along. 
They went along the road. 

Three mice went into a hole to spin ; 
Puss passed by and puss looked in. 

Polly, put the kettle on . . • 
Sukey, take it off again. 

Three children sliding on the ice 

Upon a summer's day, 
As it fell out they aH fell in ; 

The rest they ran away. 

I saw three ships come sailing by 
On Christmas Day in the morning. 

b. Use each of the following words in a sentence, first as an 
Adverb and then as a Preposition : — 

Behind. Off. By. Along. Before. Bound. Beside. About. Through. On. 
By. Up. Since. Beyond. After. Across. Under. Beneath. Above. Near. 

Learn 

69. A Prtpositioii is a word placed before a Noun or Pronoun 
to show the relation between the person or thing named and 
some other person or thing. ^ 

* 6«e ' Notes for Teachers,* p. 257, Note W. 



ii 



CONJUNCTIONS 



43 



CONJXTNOTIONS* 

70. Certain words are used to join 

(1) Other words,* as : — 

John and William* 
The man or the woman« 
Poor hut honest. 

(2) Phrases, as : — 

In the house anA in the garden.. 
On sea or on shore. 

(8) Sentences, as : — 

Edward is liked because he is kind. 
I think that he i^ coming. 

Examples of joining words. 



First Sentence, 


Joining Word, 


Second Sentence, 


Pierre is French 


and 


I^arl ifl G erman. 


Annie is clever 


but 


her brother is a dunce. 


Walter says 


that 


this clock is slow. 


I believe him 


because 


he is truthful. 


Fred went to bed 


for 


he was tired. 


The girl walked carefiilly 


lest 


she should fall. 


The children will come 


if 


they can. 


'V^^e shall be with you at ten 


unless 


the train be late. 


He came 


though 


the day was wet. 


She must know 


whether 


she did it. 


You may go out for a walk 


as 


it is fine. 



Exercise 59. 

Pick out the joining words, 

Edward is honest and truthful. The child was tired and sleepy. The 
brother or the sister will pay you a visit. The man was contented though 



1 When the pupil comes to study elliptical sentenoeahA '^Vk\ «ka ^oaiu ^i^ ^^\sct:^s&s!<&KQ^ 
except, iA sooM caBeSi and) really join tentenceu 



44 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

poor. Will you have tea or coffee ? The third boy in the class is clever 
Dut careless. The little girl has traveled much though she is young. You 
will get the prize if you deserve it. The story is true though you do not 
believe it. Tom was disliked because he was bad-tempered. I know 
Mr. Jones called, for I saw him. You will never succeed unless you try. It 
is certain that you are wrong. One will be taken and the other left. Tell 
me whether y^ou understand. The man did not hear, as he iras deaf. 

Exercise 60. 

Fill the blanks with joining words. 

Here is a piece of cake .... a bottle of wine. Ton would make haste 
.... you wanted to be early. Tell Edward . . . Percy .... their father 
wants them. I think .... she must be ill ... . she looks so pale. The 
dog licked its master .... he had beaten it. Close the window carefully 
• . . . you break it. You will be punished .... you work harder. Do you 
know .... it is seven o'clock ? 



7L Joining words sometimes go in pairs, as : — 

We expect both our uncle and our aunt. 
The butcher has either beef or mutton. 
He has neither pork nor veal. 
I shall go, tvhether you come or not. 

Exercise 61. 

Pick out the joining words. 

Neither James nor his sister was at school this morning. The man can 
neither read nor write. The fellow must surely be either deaf or stupid. 
The same shot killed both rider and horse. The king was weak both in 
body and mind. You must either obey or go. I do not care whether you 
like it or dislike it. The soldier did his duty, whether it was pleasant 
or unpleasant. 

72. Joining words which do nothing but join are called Con- 
junctions.^ 

Adverbs sometimes and Belative Pronouns * always join sentences, 
but those parts of speech do other work at the same time ; a Conjimc- 
tion only joins.* 

* Gon-junctioD, a joining together ; from the Latin con, together, and Junetio (Qdk 
funetion-ia), a • joining ' {tromjunet-uSf p. p. of jung-ere, * to join '). 

* See paragraphs 186-190. 

^See 'Notes tor Teachers,* p. SST, Note SO. 



CONJUNCTIONS 



45 



73. When two sentences are joined by a Conjunction the 
sentence before which the Conjunction comes is, strictly speak- 
ing, the second, but it is often placed first ; thus : — 



Firzt sentence first 



First sentence. 


Conjwnction, 


Second sentence. 


I love him 


because 


he is kind. 


He will come 


since 


you invite .him. 


The day was pleasant 


although 


it was rather cold. 


Send for me 


if 


you want me. 


I will come 


unless 


I hear from you. 


It is true 


that 


my father was here. 


I went home 


as 


I was not wanted. 



Second sentence first. 



Conjunction, 


Second sentence* 


Because 


he is kind 


Since 


you invite him 


Although 


it was rather cold 


If 


you want me 


Unless 


I hear from you 


That 


my father was here 


As 


I was not wanted 



First sentence. 



I love him. 

he wiU come. 

the day was pleasant. 

send for me. 

I will come. 

is true. 

I went home. 



Exercise 62. 

Bearrange the following sentences, placing second those before 
which the Conjunction comes : — 

As the weather was wet the children did not go out. If you're waking 
call me early. Because the horse was old its unkind master shot it. Although 
the wind was fair the ship did not sail. Unless you attend you will not learn. 
Since the hoy is sorry we will forgive him. That I have taken away this 
old man's daughter is most true. If you do not sow you cannot expect tQ 
reap. Though often told of his faults he does not mend them. As you are 
trying you deserve to succeed. That you were absenl vi^ ^^SX?)« 'Vi\^«ei^^^ssx 
put ooal on the fire it will go out. 



46 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 63. 

"Pick out the Conjunctions. 

One man spoke and three men listened. The flowers are cat but they 
are not yet dead. The horse could not go further because it was tired. Your 
brother wiU come if you ask him. We see that you are unwilling. Who 
can tell whether Jack is coming ? Mr. Smith is honest but mistaken. Neither 
this man sinned nor his parents. The workman finished his work and then 
went home. He ran to the station but he missed the train. William or his 
•ister will be there. I forget whether it hapi^ened on Tuesday or on Friday. 
Except these abide in the ship ye cannot be saved. Except ye repent ye 
shall all likewise perish. Love not sleep lest thou come to poverty. Whether 
he was guilty or not is still doubtful. Troy was taken though Hector defended 
it. Blessed are the merciful for they shall obtain mercy. It has been neither 
too hot nor too cold to-day. Hear counsel and receive instruction that thoa 
xnayst be wise in thy latter end. 

Little Bo-Peep fell fast asleep 

And dreamt she heard them bleating. 
But when she awoke she found it a joke, 

For still they were a-fleeting. 

She found them indeed, but it made her heart bleed. 
For they'd left their tails behind them. 

If I had but [= only] a pair of wings 
I*d join you in the sky. 

He is called by thy name, 
For He calls himself a Lamb. 

I do not know how old you are 
Or whether you can speak. 
But you may twinkle all night long 
And play at hide and seek. 

For I have neither wit nor words nor worth, 
Action nor utterance, nor the power of speech 
To stir men's blood. 

Hush, Tom I never mind it, for when your head's bare, 
You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair. 



INTERyECTIONS 



47 



Exercise 64. 

Say what Part of Speech each word is, thus : — 

Jane cried because she fell. 







Therefore it is 


Jane 


Is the name of a person. 


A Noun. 


cried 


Tells what she did. 


A Verb. 


because 


Joins the two sentences, * Jane 






cried ' and * she fell.* 


A Conjunction. 


she 


Stands for the Noun Jane. 


A Pronoun, 


feU. 


Tells what she did. 


A Verb. 



Now there came both mist and snow 
And it grew wondrous cold. 

The trees are Indian princes, 
But soon they'll turn to ghosts. 

The boy returned, for his father wanted him. 

The boat came closer to the ship 

But I nor [ = neither] spoke nor stirred* 

Learn 
74. A Coqunction is a joining word.^ 



INTERJECTIONS. 

75. Certain words which have no very clear meaning are used 
to show different kinds of feelings. Thus to show joy we say 

* Hurrah ! ' * Huzza 1 * ; to show sorrow we say, * Ah 1 * * Alas 1 * 

* Well-a-day ! ' ; to call attention we say, * Hey ! ' * Ho ! ' 

* Hollo ! ' * Lo ! ' These and similar words really form no part 
of the sentences in which they occur. 

Exercise 65. 

Pick out the words which show some feeling, 

Alas ! he is already dead. Alas 1 poor Yorick. Tush I never teU me 
that. WeU-a-day 1 it is but too true. Tut, tut 1 that is all nonsense. Hey I 



48 LONGMANS^ SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

come here. O ! for a falconer's voice. Hurrah ! oar side has won. Bravo 1 
that was well done. Hush ! the baby is asleep. Fie 1 A soldier and afraid 1 
Ah 1 the cowards. Oh 1 what beautiful flowers. Heigh-ho 1 I am tired of 
waiting. 

Hush ! hush 1 mee-ow ! mee-ow I 

We smell a rat close by. 

Bah I bah ! black sheep, 
Have you any wool ? 

Alack 1 and I must keep the fair I 
I'll give thee money for thy mare. 
Oh, oh I say you so ? 
Money makes the mare to go. 

Hurrah, hurrah ! a single field hath turned the chance of warl 
Hurrah, hurrah ! for Ivry and Henry of Navarre ! 

Ho 1 maidens of Vienna ! ho ! matrons of Lucerne, 
Weep, weep for those who never will return. 

7B. A word wMch is thrown into a sentence to show some 
feeling of the mind is called an Interjection.^ 

Strictly speaking the Interjection is no Part of Speech. 

Itearn 

Tt. An Inteijection is a word thrown into a sentence to 
show some feeling of the mind. 



EEVIEW. 



Learn again 

78. A Nonn is the name of anything. 

79. ' A Verb is a word by means of which we can say some» 
thing concerning some person or thing.' — Mason. 

80. A Prononn is a word nsed instead of a Noun. 

81. An Adjective is a word joined to a Noun (or Pronoun) to 

* PFom tlie Latin ifUer-jectm (pp. of inter-jicere), from Inter, between, and Jaeere , to 



REVIEW 49 



show what sort of, how many, how much, or which persons or 
things are spoken of.^ 

82. An Adverb is a word joined to a Verb, Adjective, or 
other Adverb to add to its meaning. 

83. A Preposition is a word placed before a Nonn, or Pro- 
noun, to show the relation between the person or thing named 
and some other person or thing. 

84. A Conjunction is a joining word. 

85. An Interjection is a word thrown into a sentence to show 
some feeling of the mind. 

Exercise 66. 

Say what Part of Speech each word printed in italics is. 

Farmers till the ground. The miller ground the com. Stay tUl Sunday. 
Look in the till, Mary lives in a he&xxiatul place. Place the candle on the 
table. The people pay taxes. The king taxes the people. The laborer*B 
pay is small. The laborer is worthy of his hire. The farmers hire ser- 
vants. The weather is fine. The ship can weather the storm. Bing the 
bell. Mary has a pretty ring. There is a fly on the window. Swallows 
fly very far. Bob is a fast pony. Bob runs fast. The soldiers gave three 
cheers. The father cheers his httle boy. The boy was little hurt. Who 
can calm the stormy sea? After the storm comes a calm. The day was calm. 
No man can still the waves. The waves are still. The waves are still 
raging. Whiskey is made in a still. The children made a snow man. 
There is snow on the mountain. The mountain air is keen. The summ>er 
sun is warm. The sun is warm in summer. There are many dty com- 
panies. There are many companies in the dty. Shepherds water their 
flocks. Shepherds give water to their flocks. All the people praise him. 
All the people give him praise. John tried to better himself. John is 
better. Shut the door. The door is shut. Iron is comm>on. The ass was 
grazing on the common. Tom lagged behind. The garden is behind the 
house. He told me not to walk on. He told me not to walk on the grass. 
We went up and dovm. We went up and dovm the street. William ocune 
first ; James came after. William came after me. My brother cannot stay 
Pill then. My brother cannot stay till Sunday. 

' Or, * An Adj^oUre is a word joined to a N«un to limit its application.*— iMiu 



50 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exerci.e 67. 

Say what Part of Speech each word is in the following sen- 
tences, thus : — 

The wedding-guest here heat his breast 
For he heard the loud bassoon. 

Therefore it is 



The 


Points out wedding -guest. 


An Adjective. 


wedding-guest 


Is the name of a person. 


A Noun. 


here 


Goes with the Verb beat to show 


An Adverb. 




when. 


• 


beat 


Tells what the wedding-guest did. 


A Verb. 


his 


Stands for the Noun wedding- 
guest. 


A Pronoun. 


breast 


Is a name. 


A Noun. 


for 


Joins the two sentences * The wed- 


A Conjunction. 




ding-guest here beat his breast/ 


* 




and ' He heard the loud bassoon.* 




he 


Stands for the Noun wedding- 
guest. 


A Pronoun. 


heard 


Tells what he did. 


A Verb. 


the 


Points out bassoon. 


An Adjective. 


loud 


Shows the kind of bassoon. 


An Adjective. 


bassoon 


Is the name of a musical instru- 
ment. 


A Noun. 



I lost mj poor little doll. 

I never could find where she lay. 

The days are cold, the nights are long. 

The kitten sleeps upon the hearth. 

My little white kitten now wants to go out. 

"When my mother died I was very young. 

Oh green was the corn as I rode on my way. 

The clouds are scudding across the moon. 

We were crowded in the cabin. 

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then. 

Britannia needs no bulwarks. 

No useless coffin enclosed his breast. 

Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 

Three blind mice, see how they run. 



REVIEW ji 



The dew was falling fast, the stars began to blink. 
Now see him mounted once again. 

Hurrah ! hurrah 1 a single field hath turned the chance of war. 

Two Bobin-redbreasts built their nest 
Within a hollow tree. 

The mountain and the squirrel 
Had a quarrel. 

Then we kissed the little maiden 
And we spoke in better cheer. 

I pray thee put into yonder port, 
For I fear a hurricane. 

The warm sun is failing, the bleak wind is wailing, 
The bare boughs are sighing, the pale flowers are dying. 

Night sank upon the dusky beach and on the purple sea ; 
Such night in England ne'er had been nor e'er again shall be* 

Dr. Johnson pretended to despise actors and actresses, but he treated 
Mrs. Siddons with great politeness. She called on him, and his servant 
could not readily find a chair for her. * You see, Madam,* said the doctor, 
* wherever you go no seats can be got.* 

A Cambridge student sent to another student to borrow a book. * I 
never lend my books out,* said he, * but if the gentleman chooses to come to 
my rooms he may use them there.* A few days after, the book-owner sent 
to the other student to borrow a pair of bellows. * I never lend my bellows 
out,' was the answer, * but if the gentleman chooses to come to my rooms he 
may use them there.* 



50 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exerci.e 67. 

Say what Part of Speech each word is in the following sen- 
tences ^ thus : — 

TJie wedding-guest here beat his breast 
For he heard the loud bassoon. 

Therefore it is 



The 


Points out wedding -guest. 


An Adjective. 


dding-gnest 


Is the name of a person. 


A Noun. 


here 


Goes with the Verb beat to show 


An Adverb. 




when. 


, 


beat 


Tells what the wedding-guest did. 


A Verb. 


his 


Stands for the Noun wedding- 
guest. 


A Pronoun. 


breast 


Is a name. 


A Noun. 


for 


Joins the two sentences * The wed- 


A Conjunction. 




ding-guest here beat his breast,* 


* 




and ' He heard the loud bassoon.* 




he 


Stands for the Noun wedding- 
guest. 


A Pronoun. 


heard 


Tells what he did. 


A Verb. 


the 


Points out bassoon. 


An Adjective. 


loud 


Shows the kind of bassoon. 


An Adjective. 


bassoon 


Is the name of a musical instru- 
ment. 


A Noun. 



I lost my poor little doll. 

I never could find where she lay. 

The days are cold, the nights are long. 

The kitten sleeps upon the hearth. 

My little white kitten now wants to go out. 

"When my mother died I was very young. 

Oh green was the corn as I rode on my way. 

The clouds are scudding across the moon. 

We were crowded in the cabin. 

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then. 

Britannia needs no bulwarks. 

No useless coffin enclosed his breast. 

Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 

Three biind mice, see how they run. 



REVIEW 51 



The dew was falling fast, the stars began to blink. 
Now see him mounted once again. 

Hurrah ! hurrah 1 a single field hath turned the chance of war. 

Two Bobin-redbreasts built their nest 
Within a hollow tree. 

The mountain and the squirrel 
Had a quarrel. 

Then we kissed the little maiden 
And we spoke in better cheer. 

I pray thee put into yonder port, 
For I fear a hurricane. 

The warm sun is failing, the bleak wind is wailing, 
The bare boughs are sighing, the pale flowers are dying. 

Night sank upon the dusky beach and on the purple sea ; 
Such night in England ne'er had been nor e'er again shall be* 

Dr. Johnson pretended to despise actors and actresses, but he treated 
Mrs. Siddons with great politeness. She called on him, and his servant 
could not readily find a chair for her. ' You see, Madam,' said the doctor, 
* wherever you go no seats can be got.' 

A Cambridge student sent to another student to borrow a book. * I 
never lend my books out,' said he, * but if the gentleman chooses to come to 
my rooms he may use them there.' A few days after, the book-owner sent 
to the other student to borrow a pair of bellows. * I never lend my bellows 
out,' was the answer, < but if the gentleman chooses to come to my rooms he 
may use them there.' 



53 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



PART n. 

CLASSIFICATION AND INFLECTION. 

NOUNS. 

Proper Nouns. 

Work again Exercises 1 and 2. 

86. A word which is the nam© of a particular person^ 
animal, place, or thing, is called a Proper ^ Noun. 

A Proper Noun when written or printed should always have a 
eapiial letter. 

Exercise €8. 

Pick out the Proper Nouns. 

King Arthur's sword was caUed Excalibar. Jupiter was the chief god 
of the Romans. Melbourne is the largest town in Australia. We get gold 
from California and Victoria. John struck James with a stick. My dog 
is called Spot, and Mary's cat is called Snowy. The farmer has a horse, 
Smiler. The ship was named the Thunderer. 

The Northern Star 
Sailed over the bar, 
Bound to the Baltic Sea. 

William sailed from Normandy, landed near Hastings, won a battle at 
Senlac, marched to London, and conquered England. The Duke of 
Wellington had a famous charger called Copenhagen. Captain John 
Smith landed at Jamestown, Ya. 

» Prom the French propre^ from the Latin proprius^ one's own. A Proper Koon is the 
fitra name of a thing. 



ABSTRACT NOUNS 53 



Common Nouns. 

TForfc again Exercises 3, 4, 5, and 6. 

87. A word which is the name of each thing belonging to a 
class of things of the same kind is called a Common^ Noun. 

Exercise 69. 

Pick out the Common Nouns. 

Once, when Rubens the famous artist was traveling in Spain, he visited 
a convent. The monies took him all over the buildings. Above the altar in 
the chapel he saw a beautiful picture. * Who painted that masterpiece ?' 
he asked. * A lay brother,* answered the abbot. * Then he is a great 
painter,* said Bubens ; * let me see him that I may tell him so.* Such 
words from such a judge were too much for the poor man : he took a few 
steps forward and fell dead at Bubens* feet. 

Abstract Nouns. 

Work again Exercises 7 and 8. 

88. This paper is smooth and white ; in other words it has 
the qualities of smoothness and whiteness. The smoothness and 
whiteness cannot be separated from the paper, but in our own 
minds we can think of them as something apart. 

Again, running is an action, bat the running cannot be 
separated from the runner. It is only in our own minds that we 
can think of it as something apart. 

So slavery is a state or condition that cannot be separated 
from the slave, but that can be thought of as something apart. 

This drawing away with our minds the quality from the 
thing which has it, the action from the thing which does it, or the 
condition from the thing which is in it, is called abstracting,^ 

89. The name of a quality, action or state is called an Abstract 
Noun. 

* Common (from the Latin eommun-is^ shared by several, common) means belongliigto 
more than one ; a common is land beloncring to many or all. 

* Latin db*, awaj from, and ^/yicZ-im, drawn (.p.p. ol tra1v*ere,\A ^xwrV 



54 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



90. Thinking about the way in which Abstract Nouns are 
formed greatly helps us to know them. 

(1) An Adjective is the Part of Speech which shows quahty ; there- 
fore many Abstract Nouns are formed from Adjectives ; as : — 



Adjective, 


Abstract Noun, 


good 


good-ness 


black 


black-ness 


noble 


nobility 


honest 


honesty 


stupid 


stupidity 


pure 


purity 


wide 


width 


true 


truth 


wise 


wisdom 



Adjective. 


Abstract iVoun, 


bold 


bold-ness 


dark 


dark-ness 


prudent 


prudence 


patient 


patience 


innocent 


innocence 


temperate 


temperance 


just 


justice 


distant 


distance 


silent 


silence 



(2) A Verb is the Part of Speech which tells of action ; therefore 
many Abstract Nouns are formed from Verbs ; as : — 



Verb. 


Abstract Noun. 


serve 


service 


choose 


choice 


relieve 


relief 


elect 


election 


protect 


protection 


invent 


invention 


move 


motion 


reflect 


reflection 


learn 


learning 



Verb. 


Abstract Noun, 


believe 


belief 


deceive 


deceit 


advise 


advice 


defend 


defence 


conceal 


concealment 


judge 


judgment 


read 


reading 


please 


pleasure 


seize 


seizure 



(8) Abstract Nouns are also formed from Common Nouns ; aj i«- 



Common Noun. 



friend 
leader 
captain 
bond 
peer 
mayor 



Abstract Noun. 



friendship 

leadership 

captaincy 

bondage 

peerage 

mayoralty 



Common Noun. 


Abstract Noun, 


rascal 


rascality 


man 


manhood 


child 


childhood 


martyr 


martyrdom 


hero 


heroism 


thief 


theft 



ABSTRACT NOUNS 55 



Exercise 70. 

Form Abstract Nouns from 

(a) The following Adjectives : — 

Long. Bound. Begular. Black. Bright. Bighteous. Foolish. Bold. 
True. Wide. Strong. Dear. Curious. Bapid. Stupid. Prudent. Just 
Simple. Pure. Good. 

(6) The following Verbs: — 

Occupy. Believe. Believe. Deceive. Elect. Prove. Bevise. PleasOo 
Invert. Conceal. Sing. Erase. 

(c) The following Nouns : — 

Enave. Bogue. Bascal. Boy. Man. Friend. Child. Agent. Begent. 
Duke. Master. Infant. Primate. 

Exercise 71. 

Pick out the Abstract Nouns. 

The room is twenty feet in length. The baby is in a sweet sleep. Mary 
attends school with great regularity. Mr. Brown holds an agency for an 
iron manufacturer. Lazy people take most trouble. The prisoner was 
accused of a serious crime, but as there was no proof of his guilt he was set 
at liberty. The driver behaved with cruelty. The beauty of the scene gave 
us much pleasure. A little learning is a dangerous thing. A little weeping 
would ease my heart. The quality of mercy is not strained. There was 
darkness over all. Honesty is the best policy. The sun gives warmth. 
Virtue is its own reward. Charity covers a multitude of sins. Wisdom is 
better than strength. 

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever; 
Its loveliness increases ; it will never 
Pass into nothingness. 

Exercise 72. 

Pick out the Nouns and say of each whether it is Proper, 
Common, or Abstract. 

Upon Saint Crispin's day 
Fought was this noble fray, 
Which fame did not delay 
To England lo oaxr^o 



56 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



O when shall Englishmen 
With such acts fill a pen, 
Or England breed again 
Such a King Harry ? 

Tes, honor calls. With strength like steel. 

He puts the vision by : 
Let dusky Indians whine and kneel ; 

An English lad must die. 

And the widows of Asshur are load in their wail, 
And the idols are broke in the temple of Baal ; 
And the might of the Gentile, nnsmote by the sword, 
Hath melted like snow in the glance of the Lord* 

Barbara Frietchie*s work is o*er, 

And the rebel rides on his raid no more. 

Over Barbara Frietchie*s grave 
Flag of freedom and union wave. 

Additional sentences : — Exercise 9. 



Number. 

91. Notice the difference in form between each Noun in 
the first column and the corresponding Noun in the second 
column. 



One boy. 


Two boys. 


One topaz. 


Two topazes 


One girl. 


Two girls. 






One dog. 


Two dogs. 


One valley. 


Two valleys. 


One hare. 


Two hares. 


One lady. 


Two ladies. 


One gas. 


Two gases. 


One knife. 


Two knives. 


One ass. 


Two asses. 






One brush. 


Two brushes. 


One ox. 


Two oxen. 


One peach. 


Two peaches. 






One fox. 


Two foxes. 


One man. 


Two men. 



It will be seen that the forms of these Nouns change with 
the number of things spoken of. The form used when speaking 
of one thing — a single thing — is called the Singular * Number ; 



* Singular from the Latin tingular^St single, from ringulif one by one. 



NUMBER 



57 



the form used when speaking of more than one is called the 
Plural ^ Number. 

92. The Plural number is now most commonly formed by 
adding s to the Singular ; as : — 



Singular^ 


PluraL 


Singular. 


Plural, 


Table. 
Chair. 
Street. 
Cab. 


Tables. 
Chairs. 
Streets. 
Cabs. 


Book. 
Log. 
Top. 
Cow. 


Books. 
Logs. 
Tops. 
Cows. 



Exercise 73. 

a. Give the Plural Numbers of: — 

Pen. Gat. Pencil. Desk. Bottle. Picture. Board. Fire. Bug. 

Poker. Wall. House. Garden. Tree. Horse. Golt. Gate. Door. 

Window. Flower. Bose. Stone. Grocer. Letter. Basket. Sob. Bock. 

Bud. Eye. Egg. Book. Crow. Bird. Beast. Fig. Marble. Eing. 
Hoop. Friend. Servant. Frame. Vase. Metal. Hand. Leg. 

b. Cfive fifty Nouns which form their Plural numbers by the 
addition of H to the Singular. 

93. The Plural number was once most commonly formed by 
adding es to the Singular. JSs is still added to Nouns ending in 
89 soft ch (that is ch sounded as in church), sh, x, and z ; as : — 



Singular. 



Gas. 

Grass. 
Ditch. 



Plural. 



Gas-es. 

Grass-es. 

Ditch-es. 



Singula/r. 


Plu^ral. 


Bush. 

Box. 

Topaz. 


Bush-es. 
Box-es. 
Topaz -es. 



Exercise 74. 

Crive the Plural Numbers of: — 

Moss. Mass. Pass. Guess. Mess. Miss. Glass. Class. Omnibus. 
Patch. Peach. Batch. Latch. Leech. Breach. Witch. Hitch. 
Watch. Hutch. Brooch. Coach. Bench. Wrench, Bush. Wish. 
Hash. Dish. Mesh. Blush. Brush. Tax. 



' Plural from the Latin plurality moxe ll:iaa oi\fft|fxom. plvA Vjs^b^^^^ ig\uTA;^>'a>snA» 



58 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



94. When the Singular number ends in y following a vowel,* 
the Plural is formed by adding 5 ; if the y does not follow a 
vowel the Plural is formed by changing the y into i and adding 



cs ; as : — 

Y following a vowel. 


Y not following a Vowel, 


Singular. 


Plural, 


Singular. 


Plural, 


VaUey. 

Key. 

Boy. 


VaUeys. 

Keys. 

Boys. 


Lady. 
Army. 
Daisy. 


Ladies. 

Armies. 

Daisies. 



Exercise 75. 

Give the Plural Numbers of: — 

Ally. Alley. Abbey. Baby. Berry. Beauty. Chimney. Body. 
Donkey. Copy. Essay. Dairy. Jockey. Bay. Day. Toy. Journey. 
Eddy. Kidney. Key. Quay. Ferry. Turkey. Jelly. Jury. Gipsy. 
Monkey. Lily. Pulley. Puppy. Penny. Pony. Poppy. Beply. Buby< 
Gallery. Galley. Joy. Delay. Buoy. 

96. Some Nouns ending in f or fe change the / into t?, and 
the Plural ends in ves, as halfy halves ; knife, knives : but a 
great many simply add s to the singular, as reef, reefs. 

Exercise 76. 

Give the Plural Numbers of : — 

Calf. Wife. Shelf. Elf. Leaf. Loaf. Thief. Staff. Fife. Proof. 
Scarf. Chief. Hoof. Boof. Dwarf. Wharf. Cliff. 

96. Some Nouns ending in add s in the Phiral and some 
add es. In most cases custom only decides which shall be added. 

The following add es : — Bravo. Buffalo. Calico. Cargo. Echo. 
Flamingo. Hero. Motto. Negro. Potato. Tomiato. Volcano. 

The following add s : — Canto. Bondo. Solo. Domino. Octavo. 
Qiiarto. Duodecimo. Grotto. Tyro. Mosquito. Folio. Portfolio. 
Nuncio. Oratorio. 

' Hut is a> 0, 1, 0, or N. 



NUMBER 59 



97. A few Nouns form their Plural Numbers, not by adding e% 
or 5, but in other ways once more common than now : — 

(1) By change of vowel ; as : — 

8mgula/r. Plural, 

Man. Men. 

Woman. Women. 

Foot. Feet. 

Goose. Geese. 

Tooth. Teeth. 

Mouse. Mice. 



(2) By adding en, as: — 




8ingula/r. 


Plural. 


Ox. 


Oxen. 


Brother. 


Brethren. 


Child. 


Children. 



98. Some Nouns have the same form for Singular and Plural ; 
as deer, sheep, swine, fish, groicse. 

99. Some Nouns have no Singular ; as banns, bellows, UU 
liards, draughts [* a game of draughts '], scissors, shears, snuffers f 
spectacles, trousers, oats, odds, wages, premises, victuals. 

Exercise 77. 
a. Say what is the Number of each Noun. 

The hatter sold nine caps. There are thirty days in the month of Sep- 
tember. Quick believers need broad shoulders. Foxes have holes and the 
birds of the air have nests. 

The days are cold, the nights are long, 
The north wind sings a doleful song. 

You little twinkling stars that shine 

Above my head so high, 
If I had but a pair of wings 

I'd join you in the sky. 

The clouds are scudding across the moon, 

A. misty light is on the sea; 
The wind in the shrouds has a wintry tux\A^ 

And the ioami ia flym^liQ^ 



6o LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



b. Give the Plural numbers of: — 

Board. Horse. Book. Bag. Shmb. Gas. Grass. Ditch. Moss. 
Patch. Bash. Tax. Valley. Lady. Army. Daisy. Baby. Donkey. 
Chimney. Leaf.. Calf. Wife. Hoof. Cli£f. Echo. Hero. Motto. 
Canto. Grotto. Englishman. Foot. Ox. Brother. Deer. Sheep. 

c. Give the Singular numbers of : — 

Caps. Spoons. Mats. Meadows. Gates. Boxes. Bashes. Topazes. 
Hashes. Foxes. Brooches. Watches. Alleys. Allies. Joameys. Gipsies. 
Shelves. Elves. Loaves. Roofs. Dwarfs. Baffaloes. Cargoes. Negroes. 
Portfolios. Oratorios. Mosquitos. Geese. Teeth. Mice. Brethren. 
Children. Swine. Fish. Shears. BeUows. Troasers. Oats. 

100. When ^ a Noun is taken withont change from a foreign lan- 
guage, it generally keeps its foreign Plural for a time, but after the 
word comes to be looked upon as thoroughly English it often fonns 
its Plural in the English way. 



Koirns with Foreign PlnraLi 

J. — Latin, 
(a) First Declension. 

8. Formol-a P. Formul-n 



Larv-a 


Larv-ffi 


Nebal-a 


Nebul-n 


id Declension. 




8. Badi-us 


P. Badi.i 


Foc-us 


Foc-i 


Stimal-as 


Stinml-i 


Termin-ns 


Termin-i 


Dict-am 


Dict-a 


Dat-nm 


Dat-a 


Efflavi-am 


Efflavi-a 


Errat-nm 


Errat-a 


Medi-um 


Medi-a 


Memorand-um 


Memorand-a 


Strat-am 


Strat-a 



* See *NoteB tor TeacherB,* p. 257, Kote ss. 



NUMBER 




6i 


(c) Third Declension. 






5. Apex 


P. 


Apices 


Appendix 




Appendices 


Index (in Algebra) 




Indices 


Vertex 




Vertices 


Vortex 




Vortices 


Axis 




Axes 


Amanuensis 




Amanuenses 


Genus 




Genera 


(d) Fourth Declension. 






S» Apparatus 


P. 


Apparatus 


(e) Fifth Declension. 






B. Series 


P. 


Series 


77.— GVeeft 






(a) Second Declension (Neuter). 






B. Antomat-on 


P. 


Automat-a 


Criteri-on 




Criteri-a 


Phenomen-on 




Phenomen-a 


(6) Third Declension. 






B* Analysis 


P. 


Analyses 


Thesis 




Theses 


Antithesis 




Antitheses 


Hypothesis 




Hypotheses 


Basis 




Bases 


Crisis 




Crises 


Ellipsis 




Ellipses 


Miasma 




Miasmata 


IlL—Frmoh. 




8. Bean 


P. 


Beaux 

Messieurs 

Mesdames 



Mon-sieti/r, the Singular of Mee-steurSy is not used in English. Mr, 
is used in the Singular. So Mrs, or Miss is generally used in the Sin- 
gular when Mea-damea is used in the Plural. 

IV, — Hebrew, 

B, Seraph P. Seraph-im 



Cherub 



CS^^SIxi^-VCDk 



62 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Collective Nouns. 

101. Though an army is made up of many soldiers, the word 
army is Singular. Though a crew is made up of several sailors, 
the word crew is Singular. Similarly the words jlock^ herdf 
band, are Singular. These and hke words which, while Singu- 
lar in form, are the names of Collections of persons or things, are 
called Collective Ifouns. 

Collective Nouns may be 

Singular : as, army, crew,floc7c, herd, band ; or 
Plural: as, armies, crews, flocks, herds, bands. 

Exercise 78. 

Pich out the Collective Nouns and say of what Number 
each is. 

Abraham had great flocks and herds. Seeing the multitudes, he went up 
into a mountain. When the army was defeated many regiments suffered 
severely, and some companies were almost destroyed. Congress appointed 
a committee to consider the matter. The Jewish nation was made up of 
twelve tribes and each tribe was made up of a number of families. The 
nation rejoiced when the fleet was victorious. The police dispersed the 
mob. The clans were often at war. The jury found the prisoner guilty. 
The School Board meets every week. The lowing herd winds slowly o'er 
the lea. Several of the crew deserted. There was a great crowd in the 
streets. Tom is in the flfth class. The shepherd is watching his flock. 
The earl was a member of the council. The new committee tried to undo 
the work of the old. 



Gender. 

102. All things may be divided into three classes :— 

(1) Things of the male sex ; 

(2) Things of the female sex ; 
(S) Things without life. 



GENDER 63 



Exercise 79. 

Say of each of the things named here whether it is of the 
male sex, of the female sex, or without life, 

Man. Woman. Pen. Boy. Girl. Book. Father. Window. Mother. 
Brother. Sister. Tree. Uncle. Aunt. Com. Horse. Mare. Meadow. 
Bull. Cow. Milk. He-goat. She-goat. Beard. Man-servant. Maid- 
servant. Boar. Sow. Stable. Drake. Duck. Pond. Gander. Goose. 
Table. Iron. Stone. Lion. Lioness. Den. Desert. 

103. All names may be divided into three classes correspond- 
ing to the three classes into which all things may be divided. 

They are 

(1) Names of things of the male sex ; 

(2) Names of things of the female sex ; or 
(8) Names of things without life. 

104. In the English of the present time each of these classes 
of names forms a Gender } 

Names of things of the male sex are Nomis of the Masculine ^ 
Oender. 

Names of things of the female sex are Nouns of the Feminine^ 
Oender. 

Names of things without hfe are Nouns of the Neuter ^ Oender. 

105. There are some Nouns which do not tell us whether the 
thing named is male or female ; as, parent, relative, friend ^ 
cousin, bird. Such Nouns are said to be of Common Oender. 

Exercise 80. 

a. Give the Gender of each Noun. 

The man left father, mother, brothers, sisters and all other relatives to 
travel in a far land. Boys and girls come out to play. The lion and the 
lamb shall lie down together^ and a little child shall lead them. 

* See « Notes for Teachers,' p. 257, Note 23, 

* Masculine from the Latin masculinus, lengthened from masculus, male. 

• Feminine from the Tjatin/emfni'ntM, womanly, from/emi'na, a woman. 

• Neuter is a pure Latin word, meaning neither. Neuter GcwAfft \aft»sv'a, iMe\\;\vftT'"\&ssaRS^iicsia 
nor Feminine. In origin the word fenuUe baa no coim&cXt\oii m\>^X2^<& >«^x^tAA\A» 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



As the husband is, the wife is ; thou art mated with a down, 

And the grossness of his nature shall have weight to drag thee down* 

So we made the women with their children go ; 
The oars ply back again, and yet again, 
Whilst, inch by inch, the drowning ship sank low, 
Still under steadfast men. 

Eye. Doctor. Master. Mistress. Hoase. Animal. Nephew. Nieoe. 
Farm. Fowl. Bird. Carpenter. Guardian. Sugar. Spice. Nurse. 
Servant. Attendant. Teacher. Baby. Boot. Plant. Mustard. Colt. Ox. 
Songstress. Seamstress. Hand. Leg. Arm. Heart. Life. Hope. Mercy. 

Additional Nouns : — Exercise 79. 

b. Give the Genders of the following Pronouns : — 

I. Thou. He. She. It. My. Mine. Me. Thy. Thine. Thee. 
His. Him. Hers. Its. We. Our. You. They. Them. Their. Theirs. 

106. Notice carefully the following Masculines and the 
corresponding Feminines * : — 





Masculine, 


Feminine, 




(1) father 


mother 




gentleman 


lady 




son 


daughter 




uncle 


aunt 




(2) Hon 


lion-ess 




count 


coun-tess 




hero 


hero-ine 




executor 


execu-trix 




(8) man-servant 


maid-servant 




he-goat 


she-goat 



107. It will be seen : — 

(1) That the name of the female is sometimes an entirely 
different word fi*om the name of the male. 

(2) That the Feminine Noun is sometimes formed from the 
Masculine by a termination. 

• It should be remarked that where the two words are from different roots the Feminine 
Noun is not the Feminine of the Masculine Noun. Mother, for instance, is not the Feminine 
of father; /athfr is the name of a male, and mother is the name of the corresponding 
Aa»lA Oa the Qiber band, the Noun Uoneu Is the FemVavae ol t\« -fikoxai \v»ic 



GENDER 



65 



(8) That a Noun of Common Gender is sometimes made 
Masoxiline or Feminine by having a Mascuhne or Feminine 
word placed before it. 

108. J. Examples of different words for Masculine and 
Feminine, 



Masculine, 



bachelor 

boar 
buU 

bnllook, ox 
or steer 
cock 

colt or foal 
drake 
earl 
£Either 

friar or monk 
gander 
gentleman 
hart 
horse 



Feminine, 

maid or spin- 
ster 
sow 
cow 
heifer 

hen 

fiUy 

duck 

countess 

mother 

nun 

goose 

lady 

roe or hind 

mare 



Masculine, 


Feminine, 


boy 


girl 


brother 


sister 


buck 


doe 


man 


woman 


nephew 


niece 


ram 


ewe 


sire 


dam 


son 


daughter 


stag 


hind 


uncle 


aunt 


wizard 


witch 


husband 


wife 


king 


queen 


lord 


lady 



109. II, Examples of Feminines formed by terminations. 

The only living way of forming the Feminine from the 
Masculine (that is, the only way which would be used with new 
words) is by the addition of -ess ; as, 

MasctUine, Feminine, 



baron 

count 

heir 

lion 

mayor 

priest 

prophet 

shepherd 

giant 

author 

host 

Jew 



baron-ess 

count-ess 

heir-ess 

Hon-ess 

mayor-ess 

priest-ess 

prophet-ess 

shepherd-ess 

giant-ess 

author-ess 



66 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



110. Sometimes the Feminine is made by (he addition of 
-6S5 to a somewhat altered form of the Masculine ; as, 



Ma%cuUne, 


Feminme* 


actor 


actr-ess 


ambassador 


ambassadr-ess 


benefjEustor 


benefjBustr-ess 


conductor 


conductr-ess 


elector 


electr-ess 


hnnter 


huntr-ess 


tiger 


tigr-ess 


traitor 


traitr-ess 


master 


mistr-ess 


abbot 


abb-ess 


negro 


negr-ess 


duke 


duch-ess 


marquis 


marchion-ess 



111. Some Nomis have the termination -er or -or in the 
Masculine, and -ess in the Feminine ; as, 



MascfMne, 


Feminine. 


cater-er 


eater-ess 


murder-er 


murdr-ess 


Borcer-er 


Forcer-ess 


emper-or 


empr-ess 


govem-or 


govem-ess 



112. A few Masculines are formed from the Feminine ; as, 



Feminine, 



bride 
widow 



Masculine, 



bride-groom 
widow-er 



113. Foreign or old English terminations are found in a few 
words; as, 



GENDER 



67 



Masculine, 


Feminine. 


hero 


hero-ine 


czar 


czar-ina 


administrator 


administra-triz 


executor 


execu-trix 


prosecutor 


prosecu-trix 


testator 


testa- trix 


sultan 


sultana 


infiant ^ or infante 


infanta 


^ don 


donna or dona 


signor 


signora 



114, IIL Examples of Masculine or Feminine Word placed 
before Common Noun. 



MascuUne, 




Femi/nine, 


he-bear 
he-goat 
man-servant 


Exerci 


she -bear 
she-goat 
woman-servant or maid -servant 

ise 81. 



Give the Feminines corresponding to : — 

Bachelor. Buck. Steer. Earl. Duke. Marquis. Friar. Hart. Stag. 
Sire. Wizard. Count. Elector. Hunter. Emperor. Bridegroom. 
Widower. Executor. Sultan. 



Nominative Case. 

115. The sentence * Mary writes * consists of two parts : — 

1. The name of the person of whom we are speaking — Ma/ry, and 

2. What we say about Mary — writes. 

* A Spanish or Portuguese prixuse. 



68 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

116. Every sentence, however long, has two such parts. 

The name of the person or thing spoken about is called the 
Subject. 

What we say about the Subject is called the Predicate. 

117. As the Verb is the Part of Speech by means of which we 
can say something about a person or thing, it follows that there 
must always be a Verb in the Predicate. In many sentences the 
Predicate is a Verb alone. 

118. When a chemist takes a mixture and separates each part 
from the rest he is said to analyse it ; so when we separate a 
sentence into its different parts we are said to analyse that. 

119. In analyzing a sentence always look first for the Verb ; 
that will be the whole or part of the Predicate. Then ask 
* Who ? ' or * What ? ' before the Verb ; the answer will be the 
Subject. 

Thus, John runs. 

Which is the Verb ? — Etms. 
Therefore runs is the Predicate. 
Who runs ? — John, 
Therefore John is the Subject. 

Fire hv/ms. 

Which is the Verb 7^Bum8. 
Therefore burns is the Predicate. 
What bums 7— Fire. 
Therefore ^re is the Subject. 

Exercise 82. 

a. Analyze thus the sentences given in Exercise 10 :— 



Sentence, 



William sings. 
Birds fly. 
Sheep bleat. 
Hemry is reading. 



Subject 



William 
Birds 
Sheep 
Henry 



Predicate» 



sings. 

fly. 

bleat, 
is reading. 



NOMINATIVE CASE 69 



b. Analyze similarly the following sentences : — 

Bain is falling. Eain has fallen. Stars are shining. Letters have been 
posted. Lions were killed. Cattle are grazing. Soldiers were watching. 
School is closed. Traps were set. Donkeys are braying. 

Exercise 83. 

Place Subjects before the following Predicates : — 

Mew. Chatter. Grunt. Ban. Hum. Fly. Crow. Was writing. Hafl 
been digging. Are bleating. Is falling. Is coming. 

Additional Predicates : — ^Exercise 12. 

120. The sentence ' John is coming ' makes a statement ; 
the sentence * Is John coming ? ' asks a question. 

Notice the difference between the two sentences in each of 
the following pairs : — 



Stating sentence. 



Bees are humming. 
Charles has spoken. 
Fred wiU write. 
Mary should wait. 
Baby fell. 
Lucy screams. 
Birds sing. 



Questionmg sentence. 

Are bees hununing ? 
Has Charles spoken ? 
Will Fred write ? 
Should Mary wait ? 
Did baby faU ? 
Does Lucy scream ? 
Do birds sing ? 



Exercise 84. 



a. Turn into questioning sentences the stating sentences given 
in Exercise 82, 6, and the following : — 

Baby woke. Uncle has come. School has begun. Monkeys climb. 
Cocks crow. Cats fought. Charlie grows. Fishes swim. Adders sting. 
Biohard came. 

b. Turn the following/ questioning sentences into stating sen- 
tences : — 

Is Harry sliding? Has aunt called? Did Mrs. Brown send? Will 
father wait ? Is day breaking ? Did snow fall ? Do horses neigh ? Do 
oxen low ? Did Jane bear? Should soholac^ V^^m^l 



JO LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



121. Before beginning to analyze a questioning sentence, torn 
it into a stating sentence ; thus : — 

Question, — Is Fred expected ? 

Statement, — Fred is expected. 

Verb — M expected. Who is expected ? — Fred, 

Subject. — Fred, 

Exercise 85. 

Analyze the ssntences in Exercise Si, 6, and the following : — 

Are you attending ? Did you hear ? Was he sleeping ? Is she pleased ? 
Had night begun ? Has spring come ? Is mother returning ? Was Susan 
knitting ? WHl Mr. Bobinson sing ? Has Frank started ? 

122. In telling or asking a person to do a thing, we do not 
often mention his name ; we say, for instance, ' Gome,' or ' Do 
come.' We mean * You come ; ' * Do you come,' but the you is 
left out or understood. 

Sometimes in poetry and in old EngUsh the understood word 
is thou. 

123. Analyze a commanding sentence thv^ : — 

Come. 



Sentence. 



Gome. 



Subject. 



Predicate, 



come. 



[You] 
You is put in brackets to show that it is understood. 

Exercise 86. 

Aiialyze : — 

Go. Listen. Attend. Obey. Bun. Stop. Halt. Remember. Do 
help. Do come. 

124. Adjectives are joined to Nouns, and as the Subject of a 
sentence is a Noun (or some word which does the work of a 
Noun) Adjectives (or words which do the work of Adjectives) 
may be joined to the Subject. Thus, the sentence * Boys work» 
may, by additions to the Subject boys, become 

The boys work. 

These boys work. 

Good boys work. 

My boys work. 

The good boys of the village work. 



NOMINATIVE CASE 



71 



125. Adverbs are joined to Verbs, and as the Predicate always 
is (or contains) a Verb, Adverbs (or words which do the work of 
Adverbs) may be joined to the Predicate. Thus the sentence 
* Boys work ' may, by additions to the Predicate, become 

Boys work diligently. 

Boys work now. 

Boys work in school. 

Boys work to please their teacher. 

Boys work diligently now in school to please their tea^cher, 

126. As the words joined to the Subject, though doing the 
work of Adjectives, are not always Adjectives, it is convenient to 
call them, when analyzing, Adjuncts \ and as the words joined 
to the Predicate, though doing the work of Adverbs, are not 
always Adverbs, it is convenient to call them also Adjuncts.^ 



Exercise 87. 

Analyze the following sentences, thus: — 

Sentence, 



Subject, 


Adjuncts] 

of the 

Subject, 


Predicate, 


Adjuncts 

of the 
Predicate, 


Sister 
Book 

Train- 
bands 


my 
the 

the 
orLondon 


arrived 
is lying 

marched 


yesterday. 

on the 
table. 

to Brent- 
ford. 



My sister arrived yesterday. 
The book is lying on the table 

The trainbands of London 
marched to Brentford. 



a. Tom's brother will come to-morrow. The careless girl was looking off 
her book. The laws of the land were often broken. Pretty flowers grow in 
my garden. The nightingale is singing sweetly. The poor slave was crying 
bitterly. The golden com was waving in the smi. The great bell is tolling 
slowly. The tall trees are shaking in the wind. I am going to London next 
week. 

b. Is the little child sleeping stMl? Did your father write to you yester- 
day ? Was the garden gate closed just now ? Have you beerj waiting long ? 
Have those new houses been let already ? Has your garden been thoroughly 
weeded ? 

*f rom the Lfttia ait to, and^uncfui, joined ^p. p. oi juAfigeie^XA \^\s:v 



7* 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



0. Listen oarefoUy. Attend to your teacher. Wait for me downBtairs. 
Go to bed at once. Speak softly. Bun to school. 

127. The principal word in a Subject, when a Noun or Pro- 
noun, is said to be in the Ifominative ^ Case. 

128. In parsing say that the Noun or Pronoun is in the 
Nominative Case, Subject to the Verb in the Predicate. 

Exercise 88. 

Pick out the Nouns and Pronouns in Exercise 87 that are in the 
Nominative Case and say of what Verb each is Subject; thv^ : — 

Brother^ a Noun in the Nominative Case, Subject to the Verb wHl 
come. 



Objective Case. 

Bead again jpar, 6, and work again Exercise 18. 

129. When the Verb in a sentence tells what a person or 
thing does, the sentence often shows to what person or thing the 
action is done. Thus, in the sentence * Mary obeys her mother/ 
obeys tells what Mary does, and mother shows whom she obeys ; 
and in the sentence, * Tom lost his slate,' lost tells what Tom did 
and slate shows what he lost. 

130. We have seen that the name of the doer is the Subject 
of the Verb ; the name of the person or thing that the action is 
done to is called the Object of the Verb. 

Examples of Objects, 



Sentence. 




Parents love children 
Children obey parents 
Cats catch mice 
Mice fear cats 



Parents 
Children 
Cats 
Mice 



Predicate, 



love 
obey 
catch 
fear 



Object. 



children 
parents 
mice 
cats 



» From the Latin nominaltu, p. p. of nominare, to name. The Nominatire Case is the 
ease ot the Sabjeot, and tlie Subject fiame» tliat aloout vi^c'\i\i^<&'&t«^iaa.tA teUa. 



OBJECTIVE CASE 



73 



131. By noticing these sentences it will be seen that the 
Object can always be found by asking * Whom ? ' or * What ? * 
a/iter the Verb. 

Exercise 89. 

Analyze thefollomng sentences ; — 

Soldiers fight battles. Tom missed Fred. Mary is minding baby. Job 
showed patience. Abraham had faith. Moses possessed meekness. Eavens 
fed Elijah. Solomon obtained wisdom. Bomulus founded Borne. Ciesar 
invaded Britain. 

132. As the Object, like the Subject, is a Noun (or some word 
which does the work of a Noun) Adjectives (or words which do 
the work of Adjectives) may be joined to it as to the Subject. 
Thus the sentence ' Boys learn lessons ' may, by additions to the 
Object, become 

Boys learn the lessons. 

Boys learn their lessons. 

Boys learn home lessons. 

Boys learn difficult lessons. 

Boys learn lessons about Verbs. 

Boys learn their difficult home lessons about Verbs, 

Exercise 90. 

Analyze the following sentences, thus : — 



Sentence. 


Subject. 


Adjuncts 

of the 

Subject. 


Predi- 
cate. 


Olject. 


Adjuncts 
of the 
Object. 


Adjuncts 

of the 

Predi' 

cate. 


The horse is draw- 


Horse 


the 


is draw- 


load 


a 


now 


ing a heavy load 
of bricks now. 






ing 




heavy 
of bricks 




Many birds build 
beautiful nests. 


Birds 


many 


build 


nests 


beautiful 




A big dog bit my 
sister's little boy 
yesterday. 


Bog 


a 

big 


bit 


boy 


my sis- 
ter's 
Uttle 


yesterday 



The servant dusted every room carefully. The &cei£L<&Ti >2!Kt«^ Nsswa* ^ 
water on the fire. Little Fred loves his kind ei&Wx deaxV^. ^qt£^% ^^sn^X 



74 LOXGMA.VS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

whistles several tunes correctly. Nellie met her young cousin at the station. 
We saw our neighbor'^ three children in the park. Some thief stole the 
farmer's best horse. A clever policeman caught the artful thief. Th« 
heavy rains beat the ripe barley down. The gardener grows fine crops of 
potatoes. He won several valuable prizes. The tall poppies lifted their 
gay heads proudly. 

Exercise 91. 

In the following sentences supply Objects with or without 
Adjuncts : — 

We have lost our . . . The dog has killed . . . The woodman felled 
• . . The old gardener is watering . . . The birds are singing . . . The 
cook is making . . . William is expecting . . . James dislikes . • . The 
brave sailor saved . . . The sun gives . . . The children took . . . The 
skilful smith made . . . 

133. Every Predicate has a Subject, but it is not every Predi- 
cate that has an Object. If the question * Whom ? * or ' What ? * 
asked after the Verb gives no answer the Verb has no Object. 

Exercise 92. 

Pick out the Verbs which have Objects* 

William is reading a pretty story. The window has been broken. The 
child was sleeping. The cook made a nice pudding. The fire is burning 
brightly. The soldier was wounded in the arm. The girl has found her 
father. I am looking for my cap. She met her friend at the fair. Mr. 
Jones lives in Leicester. My father loves me. Janets new dress has been 
torn. The carpenter made a wheelbarrow. The wind is blowing fiercely. 
Tom was beaten. We should love our enemies. 

134. The same Verb may have an Object in one sentence and 
no Object in another ; thus : — 

Ja/mea is writing. * Is writing what ? * No answer ; therefore no 
Object. 

James is toriting a letter, * Is writing what ? * A letter ; therefore 
an Object, letter, 

Exercist 93. 

Pick out the sentences which contain Objects, 

Mary woke. Mary woke her mother. 
Tom 23 reading * Eohinson Crusoe.' Tom is reading. 



OBJECTIVE CASE 75 



The rain was beating against the window. The driver was beating his 
horse. 

The waves broke on the shore. The poor man broke his arm. 

Wasps sting some people. Wasps sting. 

Doctors formerly bled their patients. The wound bled freely. 

Mary is playing with her doll. Mary is playing the piano. 

The wet ground is drying. The sun is drying the wet ground. 

The fire was burning brightly. The fire was burning the carpet. 

That clock strikes the hours. That clock strikes loudly. 

Jane knits. Jane knits stockings for her father. 

The workmen are digging. The workmen are digging a ditch. 

135. The principal word in the Object, when a Noun or Pro^ 
noun, is said to be in the Objective Case. 

136. In parsing say that the Noun or Pronoun is in the 
Objective Case governed by the Verb. 



Exercise 94. 

'Pick out the Nouns and Pronouns in the Objective Case in 
Exercises 89 and 13, and say by what Verb each is governed. 
Work again Exercises 56 and 57. 

137. Prepositions as well as Verbs govern the Objective Case. 
The Objective Case is found by asking * Whom ? ' or * What ? ' 
after the Preposition ; thus : — 

Ellen M toith her father. Preposition, tvith. With whom ? Her 
father. Father is in the Objective Case governed by the Preposition 
toith, 

138. Every Preposition must always have a Noun or Pronoun 
in the Objective Case going with it. 

Exercise 95. 

In Exercise 67 pick out the Prepositions and say what Nouns 
or Pronouns they govern in the Objective Case. 



76 LONGAfANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Possessive Case. 

139. In the sentence < William lost John's knife/ John is the 
name of the 'poszezzor (or owner), and haift is the name of the 
thing possessed (or owned). 

140. Notice how the name of the possessor is written in the 
following examples : — 



Singular. 


PluraL 


A bird's wings 
The man's hat 
Moses* life 
For goodness' sake 


The birds* wings 
The fnen*9 hats 



141. The form of the Noon (or Pronoun) which is nsed to 
show that something belongs to the person or thing named is 
called the Possessive Case. 

142. The Possessive Case of a Noun in the Singular Number 
is formed by adding an apostrophe (*) and s ; as, ' The bird's 
wing,' * The man's hat.' 

143. If the Noun in the Singular Number already ends in a 
hissing sound the s of the Possessive is often left out : as in 
* Moses* law,' * Euripides* plays,' * Socrates' questions,' * For 
goodness' sake,'* For conscience' sake,' * In justice' cause,' * For 
Jesus' love.' 

144. The putting in or leaving out of the s in such cases is very 
much a matter of taste. We can say * James's book * or ' James^ 
book.' * Moses's law ' would sound disagreeable to most people ; 
perhaps * The law of Moses,' * The plays of Euripides,' * The questions 
of Socrates ' would be the better forms. 

145. When the Noun in the Plural ends in s the Possessive is 
shown by adding an apostrophe only : as * Birds' wings,' 'Boys' 
games.' When the Noun does not end in 5 an apostrophe and s 

are added ; aa * Men's gloves,' * Children's booka.' 



POSSESSIVE CASE 77 



146. The names of things are rarely put in the Possessive Case, 
the Objective Case with of being used. We say * A man's leg,' * A 
horse's leg,' but * The leg of a table,' not * A table's leg.' 

147. The Noun upon which the Possessive Case depends is 
sometimes * understood.' Thus, * I am going to stay at Brown's 
for a week,* means * I am going to stay at Brown's house ; ' * St. 
Peter's ' probably means * St. Peter's Church.' 

148. After a Pronoun in the Possessive Case there is often no 
Noun : as, * This is my book ; where is yours ? ' 

Note that ov/rs^ yours^ and theirs have no apostrophe. 

Exercise 96. 

a. Pich out the Nouns in the Possessive Case and say what 
Noun each depends on. 

The singer's voice is sweet. We watched the eagle's flight. The boy's 
book is new. The children's clothes are clean. The poUce found the 
thieves' plunder hidden in the cellar. The butchers' shops were all dosed. 
Samson tied foxes' tails together. The farmer bought hay for his oxen's 
food. For goodness' sake Usten. Socrates' wife was a scold. Moses' grave 
is unknown. The ladies' dresses were beautiful. Hercules' strength was 
wonderful. We buy sugar at a grocer's and paper at a stationer's. They live 
in kings' courts. Thomas More disobeyed Henry for conscience' sake. The 
vault was full of men's bones. The people whisper of good Polonius' death. 
In this place ran Cassius' dagger through. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of 
a fever. Swift was Dean of St. Patrick's. William stayed at his brother's. 

b. Pich out the Pronouns in the Possessive Case and say 
what Noun each depends on. 

I have found my cap. Hast thou seen thy friend ? Tom has learned his 
lessons, but Jane has not learned hers. The bird is in its nest. We have 
found our mittens. Found your mittens 1 The children were crying 
because they had lost their father. That bat is mine ; where is yours ? 

c. Write the Possessive Case Singular of :> — 

Moses. Aristides. Socrates. Francis, ^neas. Ulysses. Mr. Bichards* 
Conscience. Goodness. Justice. 

d. Write the Possessive Case Singular and Plural of : — 

Boy. Lady. Baby. Jockey. Gipsy. Monkey. Wife. Thief. Chief. Ne^jsa« 
Eero. Man. Goose. Month. Brother. Chiid« ^oxxi'ObiL. 'V^ve^jt^^isei^^^&si^A^ 



78 LONGMANS^ SCHOOL CRAMAPAR 

e. Turn the following into the Possessive Case : — 

The spirit of your fathers. The life of man. The minds of your 
daughters. The voice of the duke. The customs of the Turks. For the 
sake of conscience. The dagger of Gassius. The plays of Shakespeare. 
The books of the boys. The strength of Hercules. The fleetness of the 
horse. 

Place of Subject and Object. 

149. In a stating sentence the Subject is generally placed 
before the Verb and the Object after the Verb, but words are 
often put out of their usual places when stress has to be laid on 
them. Thus, when Carlyle says, *Two men I honor and no 
third/ he draws more attention to the Object me7i than if he 
said, *I honor two men and no third.* 

160. In poetry the Subject and Object are often put out of 
their usual places ; as, ' Now fades the glimmering landscape on 
the sight ; ' ' Your glorious standard launch again.' 

Exercise 97. 

a. Pick out the Predicate and Subject. 

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then. Steadily blows the north-east 
wind. There stood proud forms around the throne. Up flew the windows 
all. Away went Gilpin. Down ran the wine into the road. There came a 
burst of thunder sound. Then up arose her seven brethren. Down went 
the Royal George. Then blooms each thing. Out spoke the hardy High- 
land wight. Adown the glen rode armed men. And there lay the steed 
with his nostril all wide. Then went I to a garden. Then pledged we the 
wine-cup. 

Underneath this sable hearse 
Lies the subject of all verse. 

Within a windowed niche of that high hall 
Sate Brunswick's fated chieftain. 

But on the British heart were lost 
The terrors of the charging host. 

b. Pick out Predicate, Subject, and Object. 

His warm blood the wolf shall lap. My sorrows I then might assuage. 
The monung ie&8t with joy they brought. A kingly crowa he wore. No 



REVIEW OF NOUNS 79 



comfort could I find. The ant its labors has begun. Thou thy worldly 
task hast done. In her attic window the staff she set. His corse to the 
ramparts we hurried. And there a little girl I found. Patient eyes, indeed, 
you have. No falsehood he will tell. * Hearts of oak,' our captains cried. 
Ten spears he swept within his grasp. Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe 
has broke. One new-made mound I saw close by. The hoary Alpine hills it 
warmed. His irons you still from the road may espy. Thee haughty 
tyrants ne'er shall tame. 

A little boy with crumbs of bread 
Many a hungry sparrow fed. 

And to the hilt his vengeful sword 
He plunged in Gelert'd side. 

I of good George Nidiver 
Now the tale will tell. 

The pavement damp and cold 
No smiling courtiers tread. 



Review. 

Learn again 

151. A NoTm is the name of anything. 

152. A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person 
animal, place, or thing. 

153. ' A Common Noun is a word that is the name of each 
thing out of a class of things of the same kind.' — Mason. 

154. An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality, action, or 
state. 

155. Nouns have two Numbers — Singular and Plural. 

156. The Singular Number is used when speaking of one, the 
Plural when speaking of more than one. 

157. A Collective Noun is one which, while Singular in form, 
is the name of a collection of persons, animals, or things. 

158. Nouns have three Genders — Masculine, Feminine, and 
Neuter. 

A Noun in the Masculine Gender is the name of anything of the 
male sex. 



So LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

159. A Noun in the Feminine Gender is the name of anything 
of the female sex. 

160. A Noun in the Neuter Gender is the name of anything 
that has no life. 

161. A Noun which may be the name of a thing of the male 
sex or of the female sex is said to be of Common Gender. 

162. Every sentence has a Subject and a Predicate. Many 
sentences have Objects. 

163. The Predicate is a Verb, or a Verb and something else. 

161 The Subject is found by asking * Who ? * or ' What ? * 
before the Predicate. 

165. Tn^ Object is found by asking ' Whom ? ' or * What ? ' 
after the Predicate. 

166. Nouit:; (and Pronouns) have three Cases — Nominative, 
Objective, and Possessive. 

167. The Noun (or Pronoun) which forms the chief part of 
the Subject is in the Nominative Case. 

168. The Noun (or Pronoun) which forms the chief part of 
the Object is in the Objective Case.> 

169. The Noun (or Pronoun) which follows a Preposition is 
also in the Objective Case. 

170. The Possessive Case is the form used to show that some- 
thing belongs to the person or thing named. 

Exercise 98. 

"Parse all the Nouns and Prepositions in the following Exer* 
cise fully, thus : — 

James found his sister's gloves in the stable, 
James Noun, Proper, Singular Number, Masculine Gender, 

Nominative Case, Subject to found, 
sister's Noun, Common, Singular Number, Feminine Gender, 

Possessive Case, depending on gloves. 
gloves Noun, Common, Plural Number, Neuter Gender, 

Objective Case, governed by the Verb fou/nd. 
in Preposition, governing stable in the Objective Case, 

stable Noun, Common, Singular Number, Neuter Gender, 

J Objective Case, governed by the Preposition in. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 8l 



Now the hungry lion roars. Merrily rose the lark. Shepherds are 
watching their flocks. No mate, no comrade Lucy knew. Old £etty*s joints 
are on the rack. 



/ 



From the neighboring school 
Come the boys. 

When the rock was hid by the surges* swell 
The mariners heard the warning bell. 

No tongue 
Their beauty might declare. 

Down came the storm and smote amain' 
The vessel in its strengtlu 



PEONOTJNS. 
Personal Pronouns. 

Work again Exercises 28 and 30. 

Exercise 99. 

Pick out the Pronouns ; write those in the Nominative Case 
in one column^ those in the Possessive Case in another column, 
and those in the Objective Case in another. 

I like my new book. Your brother lent his knife to me. We left our 
hate in the cloak-room. Will you go with us to the park ? Jack is waiting 
in the playground ; he wants you to go to him quickly. Mary says that her 
sister is ill; she caught cold on Friday. The doctor saw her this morning. 
The dog has hurt its foot ; a wheel passed over it. The travelers tried to 
cross the river, but the swollen waters carried them away, and they lost their 
Uvea. That book is interesting ; it is full of stories of adventure. If sinners 
entice thee, consent thou not. Keep thy father's commandments. 

171. A Noun in the Possessive Case is always followed by 
another Noun, expressed or understood, but a Pronoun in the 
Possessive Case is not always followed by a Noun. 

*■ Violently ttad W]M«s2l^, 



82 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Exercise 100. 

Picfc out the Pronouns in the Possessive Case. 

* This book is mine ; where is yours ? There is a porch to Mr. Smith's 
house, but there is no porch to ours. The thief said that the purse was his, 
but the lady knew that it was hers. The brothers thought that James's 
prize was better than theirs. Give me that heart, Castara, for 'tis thine. 

172. The Pronouns which are used when a person is speak- 
ing of himself, or of himself and others, are said to be of the 
First Person ; as * /went with my brother to London ; our father 
met tcs at the station and we went with him to the Tower.* 

173. The Pronouns which are used when speaking to others 
of themselves are said to be of the Second Person, as 

* Hail to thecy^ bUthe spirit, 

Bird thou never wert, 
That from heaven or near it 

Poorest thy full heart 
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.' 

* Why, friends, you go to do you know not what ; 
Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves ? ' 

174. The Pronouns used when speaking about persons or 
things, but not to them, are said to be of the Third Person ; as 
* I met Tom and Mary ; he was taking his father's horse to its 
stable ; she was calling their fowls together to give them the food 
which she had in her apron.' 

Note. — Every Noun in a sentence^ being the name of something 
spoken about, is in the Third Person. 

Exercise 101. 

Say of what Person each Pronoun in Exercises 99 and 
100 is. 

* The skylark. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



83 



175. The results obtained from working Exercises 99, 100, 
and 101 may be shown in a table, thus : — 




First 
Person. 


Second 
Person, 


Third Person. 








Masculine 
Gender. 


Feminine 
Gender. 


N&uier 
Gender. 


Singular Number. 


Nominative Case 
Possessive Case^ 
Objective Case 


I 

My, mine 
Me 


Thou 

Thy, thine 
Thee 


He 

His 

Him 


She 

Hers, her 
Her 


It 

Its 

It 


Plural Number. 


Nominative Case 
Possessive Case 
Objective Case 


We 

Our, ours 
Us 


You, ye 
Your, yours 
You 


Masculincj Feminine, and Neuter.. 
They 

Their, theirs 
Them 



176. These Pronouns are called Personal Pronouns. 

The name is not altogether a good one for those of the Third Per- 
son, because 

(1) In the oldest English they were not Personal Pronouns (See 
par. 460). 

(2) Those of the Neuter Gender do not stand for the names of 
fersona. 

Bead again par. 80. 

177. The Pronoun of the Second Person Singular {thxm, with 
thy^ thine, and thee) was formerly used 

(1) When close friends were speaking to one another ; as, 

Falstaff.—Thou wilt be horribly chid to-morrow when thou comest 
to thy father ; if thou love me practise an answer. 
Prince Henry. — Do thou stand for my father. 

Shakespeare : First Part of King Henry IV., ii., 4. 

(2) When a person was speaking to his servant or to some 
one else beneath him ; as. 

King Lear. — Follow me ; thou shalt serve me; if I like thee no 
worse aiter dinner I will not part from thee yet. 

* By some grammariaiis classed a& "Po«BeBi&v?<i kA\t^VK"^^^* ^«^ 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



(8) When a person wished to be rude. 

Thus, during the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh, Coke said to him, 
' TJiou art a monster; thou, hast an English fiEM^e but a Spanish heart 
• ... for I ihou, thee, thou traitor.* 

178. The Pronoun of the Second Person Singular is now 
used — 

(1) In poetry, as 

Little lamb, who made thee ? 

Dost thou know who made thse 7 — Blake. 

Sleep on, thou mighty brave, 
A glorious tomb they've found thee. — Lyte. 

(2) In speaking to God ; as 

O Lord, our Lord and spoiler of our foes; 
There is no Ught but Thine ; with Thee all beauty glows. 

KebU. 

179. The Pronoun of the Second Person Plural [you, with 
your and yours) is now used even when speaking to one person,' 

180. Ye is now used in poetry only; as 

Why perch ye * here, 
Wliere mortals to their Maker bend ? 

Can your spirits fear 
The God ye never could oflfend ? — Sprague, 

181. The translators of the authorized version of the Bible, 
and careful writers of their time used ye for the Nominative, and 
you for the Objective ; as, ' Ye shall be named the Priests of 

■ In modern languages generally the Second Person Singular seems to be avoided in polite 
speech. In German, French, and Italian, for example, the Second Person Singular is still 
used as it formerly was in English, but in speaking to equals or superiors Germans use 
the Third Person Plural, French people use the Second Person Plural, as we do, and the 
Italians use the Feminine Gender of the Third Person Singular ; thus : — 

Gerhan. — Haben Sie das Pferd t * Hare you [literally they] the horse ? * 

Fbench. — Avez^vous le cheval f * Have you [Plural] the horse ? • 

Italian.— ^a Ella il cacallo t • Have you [literally has she] the horse ? • 

This ella is really the Pronoun standing for the Feminine Noun eecellema, excellenoy^ 
•nd the sentence means ' Has it [that is your excellency] the horse ? ' 
' SivaJlows which &ew into church during serrioe. 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 85 



the Lord ; men shall call y(M the Ministers of our God. — 
Isaiah Ixi., 6. 

Careless writers did not observe this distinction. In Shake- 
speare's * Julius CsBsar ' (iii., 1), for instance, we find 

I do beseech ye if you bear me hard .... 

Reflexive^ Pronouns. 

Work again Exercise 36. 

182. A Pronoun is called Eeflexive when, being the Object in 
a sentence, it stands for the Noun which is the Subject, or for 
the same Noun as the Pronoun which is the Subject. 

Examples of Eeflexive Pronouns. 

I love myself. 
Thou lovest thyself. 

TXg \ loves himself. 

She I ^^^®^ herself. 

The dog loves itself. 
We love ourselves. 
You love yourselves, 
George and Johnj j^^^ themselves. 

183. It will be seen that the Reflexive Pronouns are formed 
by adding self (Singular) or selves (Plural) to some case of the 
Personal Pronouns. The self or selves y however, is not an essen- 
tial part of the Reflexive Pronoun. The Personal Pronoun 
alone is sometimes used reflexively. This was more common 
formerly, especially in poetry. 

Examples. 

I thought m^ richer than the Persian king. — Ben Jonson. 
I do repent me. — Shakespeare (* Merchant of Venice *). 

* From the Latin rv, back, a.n^flexus^ p. p. of fled ere ^ to bend. A Reflexive Pronoun ia 
used when the action is, so to speak, bent back upon tba S\jL\i\%,^\., XJmsX. N&^\iKQL'<Ja&^s5SSi>p*** 
•ad Object denote the same. 



86 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



I'll lay me down and die. — Ballad, 

Come, lay thee down. — Lodge, 

The poor contents Jiim with the care of heaven. — Pope, 

Moses gat [ = got] him up into the mount. — Ex, zxiv., 18. 

They were conmianded to make tliem ready. — J, Fox, 

Exercise 102. 

a. Pick out the Beflexive Pronouns, 

I struck myself with the hammer and hurt myself very much. Why do 
you not wash yourself, you dirty boy ? The soldier held himself upright. The 
cat sees itself in the looking-glass. She almost hates herself for her stupidity. 
Help yourself and others will help you. The travelers found themselves in 
the middle of a deep wood. An adder does not sting itself. The jug did 
not break itself. The giant raised himself slowly. We cannot see ourselves 
as others see us. 

b. Supply Beflexive Pronouns. 

Little Mary burnt . . . Frank threw ... on the ground. The chil- 
dren put ... to bed. He rid ... of all his enemies. The hunters lost 
... in the forest. Hide . . . from the dogs. We laid . . . down on the 
grass. 

184. The Pronouns compounded with self (or selves)^ besides 
being used reflexively, are used with Nouns or Personal Pronouns 
to give greater force to a statement. Thus, * I myself saw it,' is 
a more emphatic sentence than ' I saw it.' 

185. The Pronoun thus used for emphasis may be separated 
from the word with which it goes. We can, for example, say 
• John said so himself* or * John himself said so.' 

Exercise 103. 

a. Pick out the Pronouns used with other words for -em- 
phasis, 

I myself shot the rabbit. Tom himself brought the news. We ourselves 
have seen the wreck. You yourself must come. You yourselves must come. 
Mary herself made the dress. The dog itself rang the belL The thieves 
themselves owned the fact. 

I bought the book myself. You were asleep yourself. You were asleep 
yourselves. The men were enjoying themselves. The boy who complained 
fFss in fault bimselt. Jane, also, is writing heiseU. 



RELATIVE FJRONOUyS 87 

b. Say whether the compounds of self or selves are used reflex- 
ively or emphatically. 

I cut myself. I cut the twig myself. I bit myself. I myself bit that. 
Tom raised himself from the ground. Tom raised the heavy weight himself. 
Jack struck the first blow himself. Jack struck himself. The little girl lost 
herself in the crowded streets. The little girl found the thimble herself. 
We heard ourselves called. We ourselves heard the rumbling of the earth- 
quake. You must help yourselves. You yourselves must attend. And I 
myself sometimes despise myself. 

Relative Pkonouns. 

186. Here are five pairs of sentences : — ^ 

That is the boy. The hoy broke the window. 
That is the man. The man's window was broken 
Mary is the girl. You want Mary, 
This is the house. Jack built the house. 
The knife was lost. The Tcnife cost a dollar* 

187. The Noun printed in italics in the second sentence can 
be replaced by a Personal Pronoun, thus : — 

That is the boy. He broke the window. 
That is the man. His window was broken. 
Mary is the girl. You want her. 
This is the house. Jack built it. 
The knife was lost. It cost a dollar. 

188. By using a different kind of Pronoun we can combine 
the two sentences, thus : — 

That is the boy who broke the window. 
That is the man whose window was broken. 
Mary is the girl whom you want. 
This is the house that Jack built. 
The knife which was lost cost a dollar. 

' See 'Notes for Teachers/ p. 258, Note S4. 



78 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

e. Turn the following into the Possessive Case : — 

The spirit of your fathers. The life of man. The minds of your 
daughters. The voice of the duke. The customs of the Turks. For the 
sake of conscience. The dagger of Cassius. The plays of Shakespeare. 
The books of the boys. The strength of Hercules. The fleetness of the 
horse. 

Place of Subject and Object. 

149. In a stating sentence the Subject is generally placed 
before the Verb and the Object after the Verb, but words are 
often put out of their usual places when stress has to be laid on 
them. Thus, when Carlyle says, ^Two men I honor and no 
third/ he draws more attention to the Object me7i than if he 
said, *I honor two men and no third,* 

160. In poetry the Subject and Object are often put out of 
their usual places ; as, ' Now fades the glimmering landscape on 
the sight ; ' * Your glorious standard launch again.' 

Exercise 97. 

a. Pick out the Predicate and Subject. 

^p rose old Barbara Frietchie then. Steadily blows the north-east 
wind. There stood proud forms around the throne. Up flew the windows 
all. Away went Gilpin. Down ran the wine into the road. There came a 
burst of thunder sound. Then up arose her seven brethren. Down went 
the Royal George. Then blooms each thing. Out spoke the hardy High- 
land wight. Adown the glen rode armed men. And there lay the steed 
with his nostril all wide. Then went I to a garden. Then pledged we the 

wine-cup. 

Underneath this sable hearse 
Lies the subject of all verse. 

Within a windowed niche of that high hall 
Sate Brunswick's fated chieftain. 

But on the British heart were lost 
The terrors of the charging host. 

b. Pick out Predicate, Subject, and Object. 

His warm blood the wolf shall lap. My sorrows I then might assnage. 
The morning feast with joy they brought. A kingly crowB he wore. No 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 89 

is the book that you borrowed ? The gardener whom we employed was 
honest. The cow that was lost has been found. 

d. He loved the bird who loved the man 
That shot him with his bow. 

He singeth loud his godly hymns 
That he makes in the wood. 

This hermit good lives in that wood 
Which slopes down to the sea. 

I know the man that mast hear me. 

The mariner whose eye is bright, 
Whose beard with age is hoar, 
Is gone. 

He prayeth best who loveth best 
All things both great and small. 

I feel like one 
Who treads alone 
Some banquet hall deserted, 
Whose lights are fled, 
Whose garlands [are] dead. 

191. The case of a Eelative Pronoun is found in the same way 
as the case of a Noun or of a Personal Pronoun. 

Take the sentence * The friend who called has gone.* Called is 
a verb. Who called ? The friend. What word stands for friend ? 
Who. Who, therefore, is in the Nominative Case, Subject to called. 

Take the sentence * Mr. Smith is the man whose house you see.' 
Whose house ? Mr. Smith's. What word stands for Mr, Smith's ? 
Whose. Whose, therefore, is in the Possessive Case depending on 
house. 

Take the sentence ' This is the man whom I mean.* Mean is a 
verb. Mean whom ? The man. What word stands for man ? Whom, 
Whom is therefore in the Objective Case governed by the Verb m>ean» 

Note that a Relative Pronoun in the Objective Case comes before 
the Subject. 



90 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Exercise 106. 

Give the Case of each Relative Pronoun in Exercise 105. 

192. Eelative Pronouns (like Nouns and Personal Pronouns) 
are governed in the Objective Case by Prepositions ; as, * John is 
the friend on whom I depended,' or * John is the friend whom I 
depended on.' * 

Exercise 107. 

Give the Case of each Eelative Pronoun, 

a. This is the field of which I spoke. Mr. Brown is the teacher to whom 
we sent our boy. He is a man on whom we can depend. The girl brought 
the tea for which she was sent. 

b. It was my brother's carriage which you saw me in.* It was Mrs. 
West whom they heard the story from. That is the hole which the mouse 
went into. 

193. The Eelative Pronoun in the Objective Case is often left 
out. Instead of saying * John is the man whom we expected ' 
people often say * John is the man we expected.' 

Exercise 108. 

Supply the Relative Pronouns which are omitted {or * under- 
stood '). 

This is the horse Jack bought. It was William who owned the book 
I found. That is the very thing I was looking for. You are the man we 
expected. The boy only got the punishment he deserved. Mr. Brown is 
the gentleman we are waiting for. You should not believe every story you 
hear. Have you seen the house we live in now ? I am monarch of all I 
survey. It is not linen you're wearing out. Few and short were the prayers 
we said. 

194. We have now taken the Eelative Pronouns who^which^ 
and that, and concerning who we can say : — 

Masculine, Feminine and Neuter 
Singular and Plural, 

Nominative who 

Possessive whose 

Objective whom 

' Good writers try to avoid finishing a sentence with a Preposition. 



I 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 91 



195. That undergoes no change. 

196. Which may take whose in the Possessive Case, as, * A 
book whoBc leaves were torn,' but it is more common to say 0/ 
which ; as, * A book the leaves of which were torn,' 

197. Examine the sentences in Exercise 105. 
You will then see that 

Who (with whose and whom) is used when speaking of 
persons ; 

Whichf when speaking of animals or things ; and 
That, when speaking of persons, animals or things, 

198. Shakespeare has such sentences as, 

* That what we have we prize not to the worth.' 

* Look, what I speak my life shall prove it true.* 

In the first, what is a Eelative Pronoun with the Antecedent 
that ; in the second (which may be arranged 

* Look, my life shall prove it what I speak true ') 
what is also a Eelative Pronoun with the Antecedent it, 

199. WJiat is still used as a Eelative Pronoun, but the 
Antecedent is never expressed now. What may only be used 
when speaking of one thing. It is therefore always Singular 
and Neuter. 

200. Great care must be taken in deciding the Case of what. 
In the sentence * He found what he was looking for ' what is in 
the Objective Case governed by the Preposition for. In the 
sentence * I know what you want ' the whole clause * what you 
want ' is Object to know and what is Object to want. 

Exercise 109. 

Determine the Case of each * what.* 

The man means what he says. I know what you came lor. What they 
ask is reasonable. Everybody knew what he was aiming at. No one 
nnderstood what he said. Samson would not at first tell in what bisL ^^^^sc^i^s^ 
lay. What man dare I dare. 



92 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



201. So, ever, and soever may be added to the Relative Pro- 
nouns whot which and what^ as 

WhoBO eats thereof forthwith attains wisdom. — Milton. 

I think myself beholden whoever shows me my mistakes. — Locke. 

Whosoever hath Christ for his friend shall be sure of counsel. 

South. 

Whosesoever sins ye remit they are remitted unto them. 

John XX., 23. 

With whomsoever thou findest thy goods let him not live. 

Genesis xxxi., 82. 

I will do whatsoever thou sayest unto me. — Numbers xxii., 17. 

It will be seen that these Compound Belatives are used in- 
definitely and without Antecedents. 

202. Shakespeare has such sentences as, 

* These arts they have as 1 could put into them,' 

where as is clearly used for which or some other Belative. In 
the English of the present day as also seems to take the place of 
a Relative after siich and sam^ ; as, * The story is not siich as 
I like,* * I shall buy the sams kind of horse as you bought.' 

203. The Number, Gender, and Person of a Relative Pronoun 
are the same as the Number, Gender, and Person of its Antecedent. 
Thus:— 

The men who were here have gone away. 

Antecedent : men, Plural Number, Masculine Gender, 3rd Person. 
Relative : who, „ „ „ „ „ „ 

The woman who was here has gone away. 

Antecedent : woman, Sing. Nmn., Fem. Gen., 3rd Person. 
Relative : who, „ „ „ „ „ 

We, who speak to you, are Germans. 

Antecedent : we. Plural Number, Common Gender, 1st Person. 
Relative : who. 



»» »» »» »» »» »» 



What is always Singular Nmnber, Neuter Gender, 8rd Person. 
/See par. 199.] 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS • 93 



Exercise 110. 

Givt the Number, Gender, and Person of each Belative Pro- 
noun in Exercise 105. 



Interrogative Pronouns. 

204. Before who (with whose and whom), which and what 
came to be used as Eelative Pronouns they were used, as they 
still are, in asking questions. 

Examples, 

Who hath woe ? who hath redness of eyes ? 

This is my hat ; whose is that ? 

Whom do you want ? 

J\hich of the scholars is to have the prize ? 

What did they say ? 

205. When thus used they are called Interrogative^ Pro- 
nouns. 

206. Who? (with whose? and whom?) is used when we 
expect the answer to be the name of a person ; what ? when we 
expect the answer to be the name of a thing. 

207. Which? is used when we are asking about a known 
number of persons or things. 

Exercise 111. 

Pick out the Interrogative Pronouns and say in what Case 
each is. 

To whom are you writing ? Who hath measured the waters ? What do 
you want? For what are they looking? Whom do the people expect? 
Whose house is that? What is the matter? By whom was the man 
employed ? Whose is the field which was sold ? What are you thinking 
about ? Who spoke so loudly ? Whom should I trust ? What makes that 
ship drive on so fast ? What is the ocean doing ? 

* From the Latin inter, thoroughly, and rogatio (Gen. rogatUm-W), asking^ tconL r«(yur^ 

toi 



94 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



208. Whether ? meaning * which of two ? * was fonnerly used 
as an Interrogative Pronoun ; as * Whether is greater, the gold 
or the temple ? ' — Matthew xxiii., 17. 

209. Which ? and what ? are sometimes used as Interrogative 
Adjectives ; as, ' In which book ? ' 'At what time ? ' 

Demonstrative, Indefinite, and Distributive 

Pronouns. 

210. We now come to certain words about the treatment of 
which grammarians differ greatly,* These words are: — 

1. This (PI. these), that (PL those), 

2. One, aught, naught, any, other^ another, several, divers, few^ 
many, some, certain, no, none, all, 

3. Each, every, eitJier, neither. 

Some writers call all (or nearly all) these words Pronouns, 
others Adjectives, and others Adjective Pronouns, while some 
divide them into Pronouns and Adjectives. 

Perhaps the simplest plan is to call them Adjectives when 
they are followed by Nouns expressed or clearly understood, and 
Pronouns when not so followed. 

211. We thus have 

1. Demonstrative ^ Pronouns, as in 

This is my book ; that is yours. 

These are my books ; those are yours. 

I am tired ; this makes me cross. 

The day was wet ; that was why I did not come. 

John's conduct is better than that of Frank. 

And reason raise o'er instinct as you can, 
In this [the second named, instinct] 'tis God directs, in 
that [the first named, reason] *tis man. 

The busy sylphs surround their darling care. 
These set the head and those divide the hair. 

* See « Xotes for Teachers,' p. 258, Note 25. 

* From the Latin de, fully, andmom(ra(tu, p.p. of motutrare, to show. 



PRONOUNS 9S 



2. Indefinite Pronouns, as in 

One does not know what to think. 

But go, my son, and see if aught be wanting 
Among thy father's friends. 

If this work be of men it will come to naught, 

I wound and I heal, neither is there any that can deliver out of my 
hand. 

Were I king 
I should cut off the nobles from their lands, 
Desire his jewels and this other's house. 

And all was done, let others judge how well. 

In lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves. 

He can weep his sorrows with another's eyes. 

Some to the shores do fly, 
Some to the woods. 

Jehoram slew divers of the princes of Israel. 

FeWf few shall part where many meet. 

Certain of them with us went to the sepulchre. 

Several of my friends have been to India. 

Ye shall flee when none pursueth you. 

Naught's had, all's spent 
Where our desire is got without consent. 

8. Distributive Pronouns, as in 

It sat upon each of them. 

I do not believe either of them. 

I believe neitlier of them. 

Exercise 112. 

Say what is the kind and the Case of each Pronmin printed 
in italics. 

This is the new hat and that is the old one. Tliese are thy works, 
Parent of good. Those are our friends, the Johnsons. One hears ^cv vcs»jn^ 
different stories that one feels incUned. to ^o\3\i\» aVv, d 'QaeccL, "iA-ou-w^ Njfe 



96 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



called but/<?M> [be] chosen. Has aught been heard of the travelers? We 
have heard naughi, I do not want any of you boys. The master wants 
James or John ; eiiher will do. Neither is present this morning. Then he 
most have another. The poor man asked for help but got none. I bought 
five apples ; will you have some of them ? Of animals some creep, and 
others walk. There's one did laugh. Each to other hath strongly sworn. 
Then either^s love was either'* s life. Several of my books are lost. Love 
otZ, trust few, wrong none* I smote certain of them. 

Then none was for a party, 
And all were for the State. 



Review. 

Learn again 

212. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Nonn. 

213. Pronouns have three Persons, the First, Second, and 
Third. 

The First Person is used when one is speaking of himself or 
of himself and others. 

The Second Person is used when one is speaking to others 
of themselves. 

The Third Person is used when one is speaking about persons 

or things, but not to them. 

# 

214. Pronouns are — 



Personal 
Reflexive 
Relative 

Interrogative 

Demonstrative 

Indefinite 

Ditkibative 



/, thou, he, she, it, &c. [See par. 176.] 
Myself, thyself, himself, &c. [See par. 182.] 
Who, which, what, that. [See pars. 194-9, and 
201.] 

Who ? which ? what ? 
This, that, with their Plurals. 

One, aught, naught, any, other, another, some, 
several, divers, few, ma/ny, none, all. 
I Each, either, neither. 



RELATIVE PRONOUS'S 87 

b. Saij whether the compounds of self or selves are used reflex- 
ively or emphatically, 

I cut myself. I cut the twig myself. I bit myself. I myself bit that. 
Tom raised himself from the ground. Tom raised the heavy weight himself. 
Jack struck the first blow himself. Jack struck himself. The little girl lost 
herself in the crowded streets. The little girl found the thimble herself. 
We heard ourselves called. We ourselves heard the rumbling of the earth- 
quake. You must help yourselves. You yourselves must attend. And I 
myself sometimes despise myself. 

Relative Pronouns. 

186. Here are five pairs of sentences : — * 

That is the boy. The hoy broke the window. 
That is the man. The man's window was broken 
Mary is the girl. You want Mary, 
This is the house. Jack built the house. 
The knife was lost. The Tcnife cost a dollar. 

187. The Noun printed in italics in the second sentence can 
be replaced by a Personal Pronoun, thus : — 

That is the boy. He broke the window. 
That is the man. His window was broken. 
Mary is the girl. You want her. 
This is the house. Jack built it. 
The knife was lost. It cost a dollar. 

188. By using a different kind of Pronoun we can combine 
the two sentences, thus : — 

That is the boy who broke the window. 
That is the man whose window was broken. 
Mary is the girl whom you want. 
This is the house that Jack built. 
The knife which was lost cost a dollar. 

> See 'Notes for Teacliers,* p. 258, Note Si. 



98 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



ADJEOTlVJaS. 

Work again Exercise 86. 

215. An Adjective which tells what sort of person or thing is 
called an Adjective of Quality. 

Work again Exercises 86 and 87. 

216. An Adjective which tells how much or how many is 
called an Adjective of Quantity. 

Work again Exercises 88 and 89. 

217. An Adjective that tells which one is called a Demonstra- 
tive Adjective. 

The Adjectives here called Adjectives of Quantity are divided by 
some grammarians into 

Adjectives of Quantity, as mtich ; and 
Numeral Adjectives, as onet two. 

The same grammarians divide Numeral Adjectives into 

Cardinal Numeral Adjectives, as onBt two ; ani. 
Ordinal Numeral Adjectives, as firsts second, 

A word like firsty however, gives hardly any notion of number — it 
may be first of two or first of two thousand — and it does tell which one 
as much as that or this ; hence it is clearly Demonstrative. 

Exercise 114. 

Classify the Adjectives in Exercise 40. 
Work again Exercises 41 and 42. 

218. Adjectives are sometimes used without Nouns. 

219. In some cases the mind at once supplies the Noun 
which is understood. Thus, if I say * John is a tall man but 
William is a taller,' the hearer at once adds man to taller, 

220. In other cases we do not seem to feel any need for adding 
^e Noun. If I say ' The rich do not know how the 'goor live,' 



ADJECTIVES 99 



the sentence sounds complete ; indeed, if we add the Noun we 
must leave out the the and say, *• Eich people do not know how 
poor people live.' 

In parsing it is best to call these words ' Adjectives used as 
Nouns.' 

221. There are some Adjectives which are so far used as 
Nouns that it is perhaps well to call them simply Nouns. These 
are Adjectives which may have other Adjectives joined to them, 
and which may form Plurals and Possessives. Savage, Italian, 
and Christian B,Ye Adjectives in a savage country, an Italian city, 
a Christian act, but they may be treated simply as Nouns in a 
noble savage, the Italian's home, true Christians. 

Exercise 115. 

Pick out the Adjectives used as Nouns. 

Blessed are the meek. Blessed are the merciful. None but the brave 
deserve the fair. The good alone deserve to be happy. Thy songs were 
made for the pure and free. We should honor the wise and great. Mr. 
Scott was always kind to the old and feeble. The blind and the deaf 
should have our pity and our help. The strong should aid the weak. How 
are the mighty fallen ! The wisdom of the prudent is to understand His 
way. The simple believeth every word. The evil bow before the good, and 
the wicked at the gates of the righteous. The Lord will destroy the house of 
the proud. Toll for the brave, the brave that are no more. 

Bead again par. 210. 

Exercise 116. 

Pick out the Adjectives. 

This apple is to be given to that little girl. Those oranges are riper than 
these lemons. Please bring me one piece of paper ; any piece will do. 
What time will you leave to-morrow ? What picture do you like best ? 
Other Bomans will arise. The workman has found another place. Several 
birds were killed by eating some poisoned com. At sundry times and in 
divers manneis. The truth of that story is certain. We have heard certain 
strange rumors. The poet speaks thus in a certain place. Many men 
have many minds. All men are mortal. There was no snow on the ground. 
Give the book to either sister but to neilYvei \i\Q\Xi^x» 



lOO LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAAfAfAR 



Each horseman drew his batUe-blade, 
And forioos every charger neighed. 

And the good soath wind still blew hflhimiii 
Bat no sweet bird did follow. 
Nor any day, for food or play. 
Came to the mariner's hollo. 

Bead again par. 42. 

222. ilnisnsed 

(1) Before a Vowel ; as, Mn acorn,' ' an umpire.* 

(2) Before a silent h, as, ' An hour,' ' an honest man.* 

A, the shortened form of an, is used 

(1) Before a Consonant ; as, A tree. 

(2) Before any word beginning with a u 80UKD ; as, ' ^1 
European country,' * a university.' 

Exercise 117. 

Put a or an before the following words : — 

Apple. Nut. Orange. Pear. Union. European. Universal. Useful 
Hand. Hour. Honest. Heir. Humble. Ax. House. Home. University. 
Umpire. Uniform. Umbrella. Yew. Hue. Cry. Hope. Unique. Unit. 
Unitarian. Unjust. Upas tree. Usurper. Utilitarian. Book. Ewer. Ewe. 
Eve. Invalid. Irishman. Ox. Ass. Donkey. Ear. Year. Oak. Yoke. AwL 
Yawl. Yew. 

Comparison of Adjectives. 

223. If we were comparing three httle girls, Emily, AUce, 
and Mary, we might say that Emily was young, Alice was 
young-er, and Mary was the young-est ; or that Emily was fair, 
Alice was fair-er, and Mary was the fair-est ; or Emily was 
short, Alice was short-er, and Mary was the short-est. 

224. The three forms which Adjectives thus take when we 
are comparing are called the three Degrees of Comparison. 

225. The simple form of the Adjective is called the Positive 
Degree 



COMPARISON 



lOZ 



226. The Comparative Degree is used when speaking of 
two things. 

It is therefore wrong to say * The bravest boy * or * The hra/oest regi- 
ment ' when we are speaking of two boys or two regiments. 

227. The Superlative Degree is used when speaking of three 
or more than three things. 





Examples. 




Positive, 


Comparative, 


Superlative, 


Strong 


strong-er 


strong-est 


Hard 


hard-er 


hard-est 


Smooth 


smooth-er 


smooth-est 


Fine 


fin-er 


fin-est 


Coarse 


coars-er 


coars-est 


Pretty 


pretti-er 


pretti-est 


Healthy 


healthi-er 


healthi-est 


Big 


bigg-er 


bigg-est 


Fat 


fjAtt-er 


fiatt-est 



Exercise 118. 

Compare the following Adjectives : — 

a. Cold. Warm. High. Grand. Bold. Brief. 

b. Large. White. Nice. Blue. Wise. Hoarse. 

c. Holy. Merry. Busy. Giddy. Greedy. Lovely. Stately. Lonely. 
Deadly. Brawny. Silly. Sprightly. 

228. An examination of the exercise just worked will show 

(1) That the Comparative Degree is formed by adding -er 

and the Superlative Degree by adding -est to the 
Positive. 

(2) That sometimes the spelling of the Adjective is changed : 

(a) When the Adjective ends in e, the e is dropped ; as, fine, fin-er, 
fin»est, 

(b) When the Adjective ends in y after a consona/nt the y is 
changed into i ; as, pretty ^ pretti-er^ pretti-est, 

(c) When the Adjective ends in a single consonant after a single 
vowel the consonant is doubled ; as, big, bigg-er, bigg-est, 

229. The rule given for the comparison of Adjectives is true 
concerning words of one syllaU^ ^^.uQl ^oxckft^^'t^^Vvj^^^^^^^'^^'*-' 



t02 



LONGMAyS' SCHOOL GKAMMAR 



In other cases the idea of comparison is expressed by putting the 
Adverb more before the Adjective for the Comparative and most for 
the Superlative. Thus we do not say 



but 



earnest 
beautiful 

earnest 
beautiful 



eamest-er 
beautifull-er 

more earnest 
more beautifol 



eamest-est 
beautifull-est 

most earnest 
most beautifoL 



230. Some Adjectives are compared irregularly ; as, 

Positive. Comparative, Superlative, 

better 



Good 
Bad 

Little 

Manv"! 
Much/ 

Late 

Old 

Far 

No 
Positive I 
Adjective > 
corresponding 



worse 
less 

more 

later ^ 
latter/ 

older i 
elder/ 

farther 

further 

nigher 
former 



best 

worst 

least 

most 

latest \ 
last / 

oldest ^ 
eldest / 

fisurthest 

furthest 
nighest 1 
next / 
foremost \ 
first J 



231. The meaning of some Adjectives is such that they cannot be 
compared. We cannot, for example, compare ; — 

Adjectives of Quantity (Number) ; as, one, two, both. 
Demonstrative Adjectives (Strictly) ; as, this, that, 

(Order) ; as, second, third. 

Some Adjectives of Quality ; as, chief, principal, dead, living, 
iupreme, universal. 

Exercise 119. 

Compare the following Adjectives : — 

Lazy. Ugly. Witty. Red. Slim. Thin. Sad. Glad. Hot. Dim. Mad. 
Snug. Frail. Deep. Green. Black. Great. Proud. Glean. Vain. Small 
Serene. Bude. Tame. True. Bemote. Able. Happy. Balmy. Coy. Gay. 
Cruel. Prudent. Sensible. Dangerous. Virtuous. Ancient. Ungrateful. 
Learned. Famous. Eloquent. Tender. Polite. Pleasant, Narrow. Noble. 
Bxpensive. Heavy, E&rly, Busy. Lucky. 



REVJEIV OF ADJECTIVES 



103 



Review. 

Learn again 

232. An Adjective is a word joined to a Nonn (or Pronoun) 

to show what sort of, how many, how much, or which persons or 

things are spoken of. 

Or 

* An Adjective is a word joined to a Noun to limit its applica- 
tion.' — Bain. 

233. Adjectives of Quality show what kind of person or thing. 

234. Adjectives of Quantity show how much or how many. 

235. Demonstrative Adjectives show which one. 

236. Adjectives have three Degrees of Comparison, the Posi- 
tive, the Comparative, and the Superlative. 

The Comparative of short Adjectives is formed by adding -er, 
and the Superlative by adding -est to the Positive, 

Exercise 120. 

Parse all Adjectives (except the Demonstratives an or a aiwi 
the), thvs : — 

That tall man gave my youngest sister five oranges. 



That 



TaU 

Youngest 

Five 



Demonstrative Adjective, Singular Number 
joined to the Noun man. [Only when parsing this 
and thatj with their Plurals these and those, need 
the Number be stated.] 

Adjective of Quality, Positive Degree, joined to 
the Noun man. 

Adjective of Quality, Superlative Degree, joined 
to the Noim sister. 

Adjective of Quantity joined to the Noun oranges. 



The Arabs are more courageous than the Egyptians. 
Arabs 



Egyptians 
More 



} 



More "^ 

courageous ) 



Parse as N#uns. (See par. 221.) 

Adverb of Degree (see par. 325) joined to the 
Adjective courageous. 

Adjective of Quality, Comparative 'D^^^'^^\'s«isa^ 
to the Noun Arabs, 



104 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



The good deserve to he loved. 

Good Adjective of Quality used as a Norm, Collectiye, 

Common Gender, No^ninative Case, Subject to the 
Verb deserve. 

And the dying baron slowly 
Tamed his weary head to hear. 

In that hour of deep contrition 

He beheld with clearer vision. • • • 

Every vassal of his banner, 
Every serf bom to his manor, 
All those wronged and wretched creatures 
By his hand were freed again. 

It [the son] glanced on flowing flag and rippling pennon 

And the white sails of ships, 
And, from the frowning rampart, the black cannon 

Hailed it with feverish lips. 

He did not pause to parley or dissemble, 
But smote the warden hoar. 

Then fell apon the house a sudden gloom, 

A shadow on those features fair and thin. 
And softly from the hushed and darkened room, 

Two angels issued where but one went in. 

Gone are all the barons bold, 

Gone are all the knights and squires, 
Gone the abbot stern and cold. 

And the brotherhood of friars. 

Like the river, swift and clear. 
Flows his^ong. 

The tidal wave of deeper souls 
Into our inmost being rolls. 

The evil bow before the good, and the wicked at the gates of the 
righteous. 



VERBS 105 



VERBS. 

Active Voice, 

Work again Exercise 13. 

Read again Paragrajphs 129-131. 

Work again Exercise 89. 

237. A Verb when it has an Object is called Transitive^ 
and is said to be in the Active Yoice.^ 

Exercise 121. 

Oive the Voice of each Verb in Exercise 90. 

Passive Voice. 

Bead again Paragraphs 16 and 17. 
Work again Exercise 19. 

238. If Tom broke a window there was an action (breaking), 
Tom was the doer of the action, and a window was the object of 
it ; in other words, it was to a window that the action was done. 

In the sentence * Tom broke a window,* the Noun Tow is the 
Suhject of the Verb brokef and the Noun window is the Object 
of it. 

In the sentence * A window was broken by Tom,' the same 
statement is made as before, but now the name of that which 
was the object of the action has become the subject of the 
Verb, and the Verb is said to be in the Passive '^ Voice. 

Exercise 122. 

Oive the Voice of each Verb. 

The parse was stolen yesterday. All the wood has been burned. The 
road will be mended next week. The farm is well tilled. The watch has 

* The Active Voice receives its name because the Verb shows that the person or thing 
named by the Subject is acting or doing. 

* From the Latin passivtu, suffering, from pasnu, p. p. of pati^ to suffer. The Passive 
Voice was supposed to be the form of the Verb which denoted that the pecsAw. <it. ^XI2s&si» 
named by the Subject wffertA an action. 



io6 LO.\GAfANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



just been cleaned. The room has been dusted carefully. The copy is 
written nicely. The curtain was torn by the kitten. That house was built 
by my father ; it will be sold next Monday. The top of the table has been 
planed. 

Additional sentences : — Exercise 20, b, 

TuANsiTivE Verbs. 

239. Only Transitive Verbs can have a Passive Voice. 

Exercise 123. 

Pick out the Transitive Verbs and give the Voice of each, 

John threw the ball. The town was destroyed by an earthquake. Marl- 
borough gained many victories. The docks were opened by the king. We 
expect a good harvest. The picture has been torn by the baby. The storm 
frightened the passengers. The first class is taught by Mr. Vincent. The 
cuckoo was heard this morning. The mother carried her child upstairs. 
The prisoner has been caught. The gamekeeper shot fifteen hares. The 
baker has sold all his loaves. The general was welcomed on his return. 
Mary wrote a pretty letter. The joint will be cooked to-morrow. The baby 
tore my sister's book. By whom was the ink spilled ? The artist has 
painted a pretty picture. The cake was made by my little girl. The window 
was broken by a stone. Who broke the window ? I bought an atlas this 
morning. The child was knocked down by a cart. The mice ate all the 
cheese. Fred has been sent for by his mother. The servant cut her finger. 

Exercise 124. 

In Exercises 20 and 123 change the form of the sentences so 
that the Verbs in the Active Voice are made Passive^ and the 
Verbs in the Passive Voice are made Active, 

Intransitive Verbs. 

240. Verbs which are not Transitive are called Intransitive. 
Bead Exercise 10. All the Verbs in it are Intransitive. 

Exercise 125. 

Pick out the Intransitive Verbs, 

The roses are blooming brightly. The wind is roaring loudly. The 
ewallowB twitter underneath the eaves. The boy is bathing in the river. 



INTRANSITIVE VERBS 107 

My father came home yesterday. The waves were dashing on the rocks. 
The baby is sleeping soundly. The dog ran after a rabbit. Bats live in 
dark places. The owl flies at night. The lark sings sweetly. The 
sun is shining brightly. The bells are ringing. We traveled through 
Spain last spring. The cat is lying in the sun. The children are going to 
Bchool. Baby is growing fast. The hens are cackling in the yard. 

Exercise 126 

Say of each Verb whether it is Transitive or Intransitive, and 
give the Voice of each Transitive Verb, 

The farmer is sowing oats. The grass was cut yesterday. The cat is 
sleeping in the sun." Mary darned six pairs o^ stockings. The roof has 
been repaired. The little girl runs quickly. Jack drowned three kittens. 
Three kittens were drowned by Jack. The ship will sail to-morrow. My 
father arrived yesterday. The map was drawn by Arthur. The boy is 
drawing an old man. This dinner is badly cooked. The butcher killed 
three bullocks. The fire is blazing brightly. The moon rose at six o'clock. 
The cows are feeding in the meadow. The smith is shoeing the bay mare. 
The milk was spilled by the servant. Scott wrote * Marmion.* The letter 
has just been mailed. The room was papered last spring. A mist was 
driving down the British Channel. 

He goes on Sunday to the church 

And sits among his boys ; 
He hears the parson pray and preach, 

He hears his daughter's voice, 
Singing in the village choir, 

And it makes his heart rejoice. 

241. A Verb may be Transitive in one sentence, and Intrans- 
itive in another ; as : — 

Trcmaitive, The child is blowing bubbles. 
Intrcmsitive, The wind is blowing. 

Exercise 127. 
a. Say whether the Verbs are Transitive or Intransitive. 

King Cole called for his fiddlers. Mary called the cattle home. The 
bell is ringing. The sexton is ringing the bell. The snow is melting. The 
sun is melting the snow. Who will answer for his behavior ? She answered 
the question. The girl is singing. She is singing an old ballad. Baby 
woke. Baby woke its nurse. The man is beating cax^t><&« "2\s& x-ws^Sa. 
beating against the window. The ^le \a Wimsiv^Xiif^fiDJCt^ , 't>£^^ ^l^^^asast 



^Siw 



I08 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

burning weeds. Jane knits well. She knits stockings for her father. Our 
mother read to us. She read * Bobinson Crusoe.' The clock is striking. 
The smith is striking the iron. James and his sister are playing in the 
field ; Mary is playing the piano. 

Additional sentences: — Exercise 93. 

b. Put each Verb into two sentences^ using it transitively in 
the first, and intransitively in the second. 

Is preaching. Will return. Turns. Is milking. Are whistling. Are 
fighting. Grows. Are working. Can hear. Can see. Is cooking. Will 
forget. Has finished. Are beating. 



Moods. 

242. Different forms of the Verb are nsed according to the 
way or mode or Mood in which a statement is to be made. 
Thus— 

(1) We may say in the simplest way 

(a) What we know ; as, * Jack has a new hat.* 

(b) What we think ; as, ' I believe that Jack has a new 

hat.' 

(c) What we assume to be true ; as, ' If the moon is 

smaller than the planets she must be nearer to us.* 

Or we may ask a question ; as, ' Has Jack a new hat ? * 

(2) We may command ; as, * Ha/ve your books ready,' or we 
may beg ; as * Have pity on me.' 

(8) We may speak of a thing not as a fEtct, but as 

(a) A thing of which we are in doubt ; as, ' If the soldier 

have leave he will visit his home.' 
{b) A wish ; as, * Oh that it were with me as in the days 

that are past.' 
(c) A reason ; as, * Give him some food, lest he perish.* 

(4) We may have the Verb without any Subject ; as» ' To 
uvt^," To /tave.' 



INDICATIVE MOOD 109 



Indicative Mood. 

243. The form of the Verb which is used in making a simple 
statement or in asking a question is called the Indicative ^ Mood. 

Examples of the Indicative Mood, 

(1) Simple statement. 

Fred went to school. 

The master is teaching Greek. 

The girl is loved by all who know her. 

My brother has been living in Florence. 

The house was already sold. 

(2) Statement of something which is assumed to be true. 

If there is snow upon the ground you must wear thick boots. 
[We assume that there is snow upon the groand.] 

Though he is naughty his parents love him. 
[We assume that he is naughty.] 

If you saw me, what was I doing ? 

(8) Question. 

Are you pleased with your new book ? 

Has Henry found his ball ? 

Had the children warm clothing ? 

Were Annie and Edith early this morning ? 

Ha/ve you been waiting for me long ? 

Exercise 128. 

* 

Pick out the Verbs in the Indicative Mood 

(a) In Exercise 127, a. 

(b) In Exercise 84, 6. 

(c) In the following : — 

Croker had a very good opinion of himself. Once, when he was in the 
company of the Duke of Wellington, the talk turned upon the battle of Water- 
loo, and Croker actually contradicted several of the statements made by the 
Duke. Afterwards some one spoke about the copper caps which were used 

* From the Latin indieare (p.p. indicatus), to point oat, indioatA. T^^'^s^^<:9^k«Oft£9fa^ 
ia supposed to be that which pointB oat or indioaktAit 



no LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

for firing muskets, and again Croker put the Duke right. This upset the 
patience of the great soldier, and he exclaimed, ' Perhaps I know little about 
Waterloo, but I certainly know something about copper caps.' 

An ignorant countryman visited Paris. One day after he had returned 
he was talking to some of his friends about the wonders which he had 
seen. * I was most surprised,' he said, * with the cleverness of the children. 
Boys and girls of seven or eight spoke French quite as well as the chil- 
dren in this part of the world speak English.* 



Imperative Mood. 

244. The form of the Verb which is used in commanding or 
entreating is called the ImperatiTe ^ Mood. 

Examples of the Imperative Mood, 

(1) Commanding. 

Come to me, ye children. 
Stand at ease. 
Unhand me, gentlemen. 

(2) Entreating, 

Have mercy upon us. 

Gram,t us thy aid. 

Help me over this difficulty, please. 

Exercise 129. 

Pick out the Verbs 

(a) In the Indicative Mood, 

(b) In the Imperative Mood, 

Come live with me and be my love. Friends, Bomans, countrymen, lend 
me your ears. Look, in this place ran Cassius* dagger through. Judge, O 
ye gods, how dearly Gassar loved him. 

Good Cromwell, 
Neglect him not ; make use now and provide 
For thine own future safety. 

Love thyself last ; cherish those hearts that hate thee . . • • 
Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace .... 

Be just and fear not. 

' From the Latin imperare (p.p. imfa^cUui), to command. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD ill 



Wake from thy nest, Bobin Bed-breast, 
Sing, birds, in every furrow. 

Break his bands of sleep asunder 
And rouse him. 

Grieve not, my child ; chase all thy fears away. 

But see I look up I on Flodden bent. 
The Scottish foe has fired his tent. 

The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold, 
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold, 
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea, 
Where the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee. 

Look up at the brooding clouds on high, 
Look up at the awful sun I 

And behold, the sea-flood 

Is all red with blood : 
Hush I - a battle is lost — and won. 



Subjunctive Mood. 

245. The form of the Verb which is used when we are speak- 
ing, not of a fact or of what is assumed to be a fact, but of some- 
thing which is only thought of, is called the Subjunctive ^ Mood* 

246. We may think of an event as 

(1) A condition ; as, 

If Tom return in time he shall go to the party. 

(2) A wish ; as, 

Thy kingdom come^ Thy will he done, 

(3) A purpose ; as. 

Judge not, that ye he not judged. 

In each of these sentences the Verb in the Subjunctive Mood speaks of 
something which is neither a fact nor assumed to be a fact. 

(1) We are doubtful whether Tom will reium. 

(2) We are doubtful whether the kingdom will come. 

3) We are doubtful whether people who judge will be judged. 

* Prom the Latin *tt6, under, and jungere (p.p. junetus\ to \oIcl« TLYvt \s2Bssi&N&^X»&.Kss>»K 
because It assumes that the Verb in a svJb-joined «iMi\AUQi^Ts«)&\»\ifeNsvNJwi'$^i^^ 



112 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



The Subjunctive of purpose is generally expressed by means of the 
Auxiliaries may and might, (See pars. 253-4.) 

247. The Subjunctive Mood, being the Mood of doubt,' natur- 
rally comes after such words as i/, though^ unless, except, lest, 
whether, and that. It does not, however, follow that the Verb 
coming after these words is certain to be in the Subjunctive Mood ; 
it may be in the Indicative Mood. 

Subjunctive Mood, — If my brother were at the door I would not 
open it. 

Indicative Mood, — IfToay brother is at the door I will open it. 

In the first sentence my brother's being at the door is a matter of doubt ; 
in the second it is assumed that he is there. 

Subjunctive Mood. — Though the vase were made of steel, the care- 
less servant would break it. 

Indicative Mood. — Though the vase wa-8 mude of steel, the careless 
servant broke it. 

In the first sentence we speak of a vase that might be, in the second we 
speak of one that wa^, made of steel. 

Subjunctive Mood, — Whether the prisoner be innocent is uncertain. 

Indicative Mood. — ^Whether the prisoner is innocent or guilty he 
deserves pity. 

Exercise 130. 

Pick out the Verbs in the Subjunctive Mood. 

a. So [=if] thou be happy I am content. If it were so, it was a grievous 
fault. He is gracious if he be observed. Though he slay me, yet will I trust 
him. Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not go unpunished. 
Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Unless he behave better he 
will be punished. You must obey the laws, however you dislike them. 

The tear-^rop who can blame, 
Though it dim the veteran's aim ? 

Had she lived a twelvemonth more 
She had not died to-day. 

If she love me (this believe), 
I will die ere she shall grieve. 

* The donlit most be expressed by the Verb, not by any other word In the sentence. 
Compare If he be cominff . . . [Subjunctire] and 

Perhflips he U coming [Indioatiye]. 



INFINITIVE MOOD \\% 



b. Oh that it were with me as in the days that are past. See that my 
room be got ready for me at once. I would [ = wish] I were a bird. We 
wish it were fine. Hallowed be Thy name. 

c. Beware lest you fall. Strive that you fail not. Eat lest you faint* 
Drink that you thirst not. 

Exercise 131. 

Say whether the Verbs printed in italics a/rein the Indicative 
or in the Subjunctive Mood, 

Though you took his life, bury him as a prince. Though gods they were, 
as men they died. My master said that if I was not clever I was not lazy. If 
I were clever, I should gain prizes. Though Tom is young, he is tall. 
Though Tom were younger, he would still be too old for an infant school. 
If at the close of the holiday everybody was tired, everybody was happy. If 
it be true that war is about to break out, there is much misery before us. 
Though the law is severe, we must obey it. If the law be severe, we must 
try to get it changed. 

If I am right, oh teach my heart 

Still in the right to stay ; 
If I am wrong. Thy grace impart 

To find the better way. 

Mean though I am, not wholly so. 
Since quickened by Thy breath.* 

Infinitive Mood. 

Bead again Par, 23 and work again Exercise 24, a. 

248. The form of the Verb which is used without any Subject 
is called the Infinitive Mood. 

249. When a Verb in the Infinitive Mood stands alone, it 
generally has the Preposition to before it ; as, to run, to walk, to 
he, to have. 

It will be seen that this to is not a necessary part of the Infinitive. 

250. When two separate Verbs ^ come together, the second is 
In the Infinite Mood ; as, 

» See * Notes for Teachers,' p. 268, Note 26. 

' It win be seen that AttxiUaries of Voice and certain AjijdliaxVMk vjL'^«GAi^^s.^V<;S^ss^Hew 
by FarticiiOee. 



114 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



John is going to work hard. 
Your father hopes to see you soon. 
A good child tries to learn. 
The colonel ordered a sergeant to 
foUow him. 



Fir»i Verb. 



IS going 

hopes 

tries 

ordered 



Second Verb, 



to work 
to see 
to learn 

to follow 



261. A Verb in the Infinitive Mood may be used as Subject or 
Object in a sentence ; thus: — 

As Subject. To read is interesting. 

To obey is better than sacrifice. 

As Object That man means to succeed, 
I am learning to ride. 

Exercise 132. 

Pick out the Verbs in the Infinitive Mood. 

The traveler promised to return. I am going to write home. The girl 
intends to call. Do you know how to hold a pen ? The vessel is about to 
sail. The father hopes to meet his son. The workman is paid to work. To 
succeed is pleasing. To err is human, to forgive [is] divine. It is some- 
times better to remain silent than to speak. To move is to stir, and to be 
vaHant is to stand. The dog is going to be shot. Harry is beginning to 
learn Greek. Mrs. Brown is teaching her girls to sew. To master a lang- 
uage you ought to work hard. The poor mother refused to be comforted. 
The general tried to take the town. It is good to confess a fault. 

Bead again Par, 24, and work again Exercise 24, b. 

252. Some Verbs are followed by the Infinitive Mood without 
to. The most common of these Verbs are shall, will, may, can, 
rmLsU ^^ dare^ do, bidf make^ see, hear, feel, and need. 

Examples. 



Thou shalt not steaL 

I hear thee speak of a better land. 

I dare do all that may become a man. 



jBsdia me &el sad. 



First Verb, 


Second Verb, 


shalt 


steal 


hear 


speak 


dare 


do 


may 


become 


made 


feel 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 



"S 



Exercise 133. 

Tick out the Verbs in the Infinitive Mood. 

Who saw him die ? I heard Mary sing. Let us haste away. The keeper 
makes the lion obey. The mother can never forget her children. The mes- 
senger need not wait, l^ou mast listen to your teacher. That man can 
swim a mile. Few men dare face a furious bull. Bid the servant come 
here. I saw the merchant fall on the pavement. We felt the wind blow on 
our cheeks. Let us go home at once. They bid me fetch aid. 

Let the long, long procession go, 

And let the sorrowing crowd about it go, 

And let the mournful martial music blow. 



Subjunctive Mood. 

253. The Subjunctive Mood is often expressed by means of 
an Auxiliary or helping Verb, followed by the Infinitive Mood of 
the principal Verb. 



Simple Subjunctive, 



Subjunctive with Auxiliary 



If Tom return in time, he shall 

go to the party. 
Thy kingdom come. 
Judge not, that ye be not judged. 



If Tom should return in time, 

he shall go to the party. 

May Thy kingdom come. 

Judge not, lest ye might be 
judged. 



254. The Auxiliaries of the Subjunctive Mood are may, 
might, should, would. 

It must not, however, be supposed that these Verbs are always 
in the Subjunctive Mood. In the following examples they are in 
the Indicative Mood : — 

Mary may go home now. 

Here we have a simple statement of fact, — * Mary is permitted to 
go home now.* 

The roar of the sea might be heard five miles away. 

Here, again, we have the simple statement of fact, — ' It was possible 
to hear the roar of the sea.' 



Il6 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Boys should not tease little girls. 
That is, it is the duty of boys, &c. 

The fiEurmer would not lend his horse. 

That is, the farmer was not willing to lend his horse. 

266. A Verb with an Auxiliary in the Subjunctive Mood may 
be parsed in two ways. For instance, in parsing should fall (in 
the sentence ' Walk carefully lest you should fall ') we may 

(1) Parse should as a Verb in the Subjunctive Mood, and fall 
as a Verb in the Infinitive Mood, or 

(2) Parse should fall as a Verb in the Subjunctive Mood. 

266. If, before the Subjunctive, is left out when the Subject is 
placed after the Verb ; thus, 

With if. If he were in your place • • • • 
Without if. "Were he in your place . • • • 

When if is omitted before a compound Verb the Subject is 
placed after the Auxiliary ; thus, 

With if. If he were taught, he would learn. 
Without if. Were he taught, he would learn. 

Exercise 134. 

Pick out the Verbs in the Subjunctive Mood, 

a. Be good, that you may be happy. If Frank were a kind boy, he would 
not tease his sister. If the story were true, we should have heard it ; we 
would not believe it without better proof. Dick would help us if he could. 
May you be happy all your days. Lazy men would not work if they could Jive 
without working. Mr. Jones, fearing that we might fail to find the way, came 
to meet us. Everybody hopes that Jack may win the prize. The girl wished 
she might be a fairy. The father would feel sorry if he heard it. If we 
had known you were in town we should have called on you. That man 
might have been in a good position if he had been steady. Beware lest you 
should fall into temptation. / 

Little flower, but if I could understand 
What you are, root and all, and all in all, 
I should know what God and man is. 

K Had I your chance I would seize it. Were Mrs. Howe here she would 
g n mx M ft yoo* Should the messenger arrive, make him wait. Be he young or 



MOODS 117 



Go not my horse the better 
I must become .... 

Were you but riding out to air yourself 
Such parting were [ = would be] too petty. 

Were others happy he looked smiling on ; 
He gave allowance where he needed none. 

Had she lived a twelvemonth more • 
She had [= would have] not died to-day. 

Exercise 135. 

Give the Mood of each Verb. 

Fear no more the heat of the sun. Fortune brings in some boats that 
are not steered. Oh that it were with me as in the days that are past. If 
it be thou, bid me come. 

Ah I what would the world be to us 
If the children were no more ? 

How often, oh, how often 

I had wished that the ebbing tide 
Would bear me away on its bosom 

O'er the ocean wild and wide. 

* Hadst thou stayed I must have fled 1 * 
This is what the vision said. 

Suddenly, as if it lightened, 

An unwonted splendor brightened 

All within him and without him. 

Do thy duty ; that is best ; 
Leave unto thy Lord the rest. 

We are but minutes ; use us well. 

For how we are used you must one day telL 

'Tis a fearful thing in winter 

To be shattered by the blast 
And to hear the rattling trumpet 

Thunder * Cut away the mast.* 

If *twere done when *tis done then 'twere [= it would be] well 
It were done quickly. 

I had [ = should have] fainted unless I had believed. 

I were [= should be] a fool .... if she e&<^^^TCA. 



ii8 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Shoald he be roused out of his sleep to-night .... 
It were [ = would be] not well. 

If he had killed me 
He had [ = would have] done a kinder deed. 

Hadst thou been killed when first thou didst presume, 
Thou hadst not lived to kill a son of mine. 

In Scotland they have narrow open ditches which they call sheep-drains. 
A man was one day riding a donkey across a sheep-pasture. When the 
animal came to a sheep-drain he would not go over it. So the man rode him 
back a short distance, turned him round and began to use the whip sharply. 
He thought the ass when going at full speed would jump the drain before 
he knew it ; but when the creature came to the drain he stopped all at once, 
and the rider was thrown over his head right across the drain. The man 
got up quickly and called out to the beast, * That was very well pitched, but 
how are you going to get over ? * 



Participles. 

257. In the sentence 

< A man wearing a Slack hat passed by,* 

mem is the Subject and passed the Predicate. Wearing is joined 
to man like an Adjective and also does something of the work of 
a Verb because it shows us what the man is doing to the hat. 
Similarly in the sentence 

* The hat worn by the man was blacl,* 

hat is the Subject and was hl<ick the Predicate, while worn is 
joined to liat like an Adjective and also does something of the 
work of a Verb. 

As the words wearing and worn thus partake of the nature 
of an Adjective and of a Verb they are called Participles.^ 

858. Every Verb has two Participles, the ImperflMt and the 
Perfect. 

The Imperfect Participle is called by some fnrammarians the Present 
and by some the Active ; the Perfect Participle is also called the Past 
and the Passive. 

' From the Latin p^nicip-aiy^ to shuts partake. 



PARTICIPLES 119 

^ . . ._ .. . . 

259. The Imperfect Participle is always formed by adding 
'hig to the Verb ; as, worh^ work-ing ; jplay, j^lay-ing ; read, 
read-ing. 

260. The spelling of the Verb is sometimes changed a little before 
the 'ing is added. 

(1) When a Verb ends in e after a consonant, the e is dropped ; as 
love, loV'ing ; convince ^ convinc-ing ; make, mak-ing, 

A Verb ending in e not after a consonant does not change ; hie, hie-ing ; 
hoe, hoemg ; see, seeing. 

Note, however, die, dy-ing ; lie, ly-ing, 

(2) When a Verb of one syllable ends in a single consonant with a 
single vowel before it the consonant is doubled ; as, rob, robb-ing ; sin, 
sinn-ing ; bud, budd-ing. 

This rule also applies to .Verbs of more than one syllable when the 
accent falls on the last syllable ; as, rebel, rebell-mg ; commit, con^ 
mitt-vng. 

Exercise 136. 

Write the Imperfect Participles of 

a. Beat. Break. Speak., Steal. Drink. Sing. Swear. Tread. Bing. 
Shrink. Spring. Blow. Grow. ^ow. Throw. Slay. Fly. Buy. Saw. 
Sow. Lay. 

b. Weave. Choose. Freeze. Strike. Drive. Give. Eise. Smite. 
Shake. Stride. Thrive. Write. Take. Bite. Chide. Hide. Slide. 
Seethe. 

0. See. Flee. Shoe. Hoe. Hie. Eye. Agree. Dye. 

d. Bid. Spin. Spit. Get. Win. Run. Cut. Hit. Knit. Put. 
Shed. Shut. Split. Beg. Bet. Blot. Brag. Cram. Swim [Consider 
the w a consonant]. 

e. Begin. Abet. Abhor. Acquit. Admit. Annul. Appal. Aver. 
Bedim. Commit. Compel. Concur. Defer. Dispel. Equip. 

V 

Exercise 137. 

Pick out the Imperfect Pa/rticiples and say to what Noun (or 
Pronoun) each is joined. 

We saw a boy beating his donkey. The boy speaking to my sister is 
Jack Adams. The master caught his 8er\wi\» ^\ft»JCva.^V"8wi. ''TtsR. ss^w^ 



120 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



growing by the river is long and juicy. The arrow, glancing off a tree, hit 
tbe king. A hunter, shooting in the wood, found a badger. 

And children coming home from school 
Look in at the open door. 

He hears his daughter's voice 
Singing in the village choir. 

Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing, 
Onward through life he goes. 

There's a merry brown thrush sitting np in a tree. 

Then down a green plain, leaping, laughing, they ran. 

The man thus clamoriDg was, I scarce need say, 
No officer of ours. 

261. The Imperfect Participle of a Transitive Verb may 
take an Object ; as, * The boy painting [Imp. Part.] a picture 
[Obj.] is my hf other.' 

This is why the Imperfect is sometimes called the Active Participle. 

Exercise 138. 

Pick out the Imperfect Participles and the words which they 
govern in the Objective Case. 

My friends, expecting me, did not go out. Do you see that little ^irl 
blowing bubbles ? The boys throwing snowballs hurt an old man. The 
horses drawing the cart are thin. The men mowing the hay are Mr. White's 
workmen. The lady riding a bay horse is Miss Johnson. 

Little Jack Homer sat in a comer 
Eating a Christmas pie. 

Two little cherry lips 
Sending forth a song .... 

.... Gave thee such a tender voice 
Making all the vales rejoice. 

262. The Perfect Participle is formed in several ways. It is 
that part of the Verb used after * I have * ; thus — 



PARTICIPLES 



121 



Verb. 


I have 


Perfect Participle. 


walk 


walk-ed 


mount 


i» >» 


mount-ed 


knock 


»> »» 


knock-ed 


pray 


»» »» 


pray-ed 


beg 


»» »» 


begg-ed 


speak 


}} )> 


spok-en 


write 


»» »» 


writt-en 


grow 


>» i> 


grow-n 


swear 


»» i» 


swor-n 


begin 


»» »» 


beg-un 


buy 


)» » 


bought 


Bemember that t 


ae * I have * is no 


part of the Participle. 



Exercise 139. 

Write down the Perfect Participles of 

Bloom. Start. Sail. Arrive. Open. Play. Call. Look. Climb. 
Talk. Act. Plough. Live. Owe. Gaze. Dye. Lie. Lay. Flee. Fly. 
Forget. Cling. Make. Go. Strike. Mow. Sow. Fall. Drive. Swear. 
Beat. 

Exercise 140. 

Pick out the Perfect Participles and say to what Noun or 
Pronoun each is joined. 

The task begun on Monday was very hard. I saw the book spoiled by 
Mary. The prisoner found guilty escaped. The trench dug across the 
street is full of water. Seed dropped by the roadside sprang up. The fire 
fanned by the wind grew very fierce. The army hemmed in on all sides 
surrendered. The fox hidden behind some bushes hoped to escape the 
farmer's notice. The signal flashed along the coast roused the sailors. 

Just to do good it seemed to move 
Directed by the hand of love. 

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then 
Bowed with her four score years and ten. 

The wild beast stopped amazed. 

The wretch concentred all in self 
Living should forfeit fair renown, 
And doubly dying should go down 
To the vile duet from whence he sprung 
Unwept, unhonored &\id MXiSAvxi^. 



I2« LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

263. Participles are offcen used as simple Adjectives of 
Quality ; as, * A losing friend ; * * a 'printed book/ 

In parsing such Participles say that they are Imperfect or Perfect 
Participles used as Adjectives of Quahty. 

Exercise 141. 

Fick out the Participles used as Adjectives ; say whether they 
are Imperfect or Perfect, and to what Nouns they are joined. 

This paper is white as the driven snow. That is now a forgotten story. 
We could not face the freezing wind. The speaker was received with ring- 
ing cheers. See the newly-risen sun. The generals had met on many a 
well-fought field. The sick child has sunken eyes. The spun silk is very 
fine. The chairman read the standing orders. Have you seen the picture 
of the reading girl ? What a striking likeness 1 This is the sworn testi- 
mony of the witness. The first boat passed the winning post two seconds 
before the next. The poor child has a beseeching look. The Jews were 
forbidden to make graven images. God tempers the wind to the shorn 
lamb. It is of no use crying over spilt milk. These chairs are made ol 
bent wood. 

• • . . The hawthorn bush with seats beneath the shade, 
For talking age and whispering lovers made. 

Shining eyes, very blue, 
Opened very wide. . . . 

Nay, start not at the sparkling light 

.... Well rewarded if I spy, 

Pleasure in thy glancing eye. 

You little twinkling stars that shine. • • • 

The valley smiled in living green. 

Exercise 142. 

Pick out the Participles and say whether they a/re 

a. Imperfect 

b. Perfect. 

c. Imperfect used as Adjectives. 

d. Perfect used as Adjectives. 

His withered cheek and tresses gray 
Seemed to have known a better day. 
The harp, his sole remaining joy, 
Was carried by an otphfui \)07. . • « 



GERUNDS 121 



His tuneful brethren all were dead, 
And he, neglected and oppressed, 
Wished to be with them, and at rest. 

All day the low hung clouds 

Have dropped their garnered fulness dowa* 

There has not been a sound to-day 

To break the calm of nature, 
Nor motion, I might almost say. 

Of life, or living creature. 
Of waving bough or warbling bird, 

Or cattle faintly lowing ; 
I could have half believed I heard 

The leaves and blossoms growing. 

In an attitude imploring, 
Hands upon his bosom crossed. 
Wondering, worshipping, adoring, 
Knelt the monk in rapture lost. 
Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain, 
Where health and plenty cheered the laboring swain, 
Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid. 
And parting sunmier's lingering blooms delayed. 

Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing. 
Onward through life he goes. 

With upraised eyes, as one inspired, 
Pale Melancholy sat retired. 

Something attempted, something done^ 
Has earned a night's repose. 



Gerunds.^ 

264. A Participle may be called a Verbal-Adjective ; a Oenmd 
jnay be called a Verbal-Noun. 

265. The Gerund is formed like the Imperfect Paxticiple, by 
adding -ing to the Verb, hut the two are entirely different in 
origin and in use, 

266. A Gerund has Case like a Noun, but it may also govern 
Case like a Verb. 

* See * Notes for Teachers,* p. 258, Note 27. Oerund^ from the Latin ger-ere CFatur* x^«^« 
gerundiu)t to carry on. The reason for the term cannot \m ^«ttV| ^MiQk.V^'f&Ki^eca^^fi^'^^^^^ 



124 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Examples of Gerund as Subject, 

Beading is interesting. 
Walking is a healthy exercise. 
Writing is a useful art. 

Examples of Qervmd as Object 

I like riding. 

Jack taught him swimming, 

Mary learns draunng. 

Examples of Gerund in the Objective Case after Prepositionit ' 

Mr. Sidney is fond of hu/nting. 

Wash before eating. 

Men who believe in working get on. 

Examples of Gerund governing and governed. 

I like reading history. 

Tom is fond of chopping wood. 

Herbert objects to studying music. 

267. Compound Gerunds may be formed from have and be, 
followed by the Perfect Participle of the principal Verb ; as, ' The 
man is sad from having lost his son ; ' * The prophet wore a veil 
to keep his face from being seen.* 

268. Sometimes it is a little hard to say whether a word is 

an Abstract Noun or a Gerund. When it has an Article before 

it, or is followed by of, it had better be called a Noun [as, * After 

the passing of the Act,'] and when it has an Object it must be 

called a Gerund. 

In Parsing a Gerund say from what Verb it is formed, in what Case 
it is, and what Case (if any) it governs. 

Exercise 143. 

Pick out 

a. The Imperfect Participles. 

b. The Gerunds, 

and parse the Gerunds. 

In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. Seeing is believ- 
ing [Nam. Case], After hearing the news I came away. Stanley, traveling 



TENSES 125 

■^■^M^— i^i^— ^M^^^^lii^^i— ^^— ^^— ^ ■ - ' ^ .1-1 .■ I.. ■■I. I ■ II ^W^— , ■ ■■■ ■ III 

across Africa, found Livingstooe. Traveling is interesting. I am fond of 
traveling. Whipping a dead horse is foolish. The boy whipping a top is 
Eichard Nolan. Giving is more blessed than receiving [Nom. Case]. After 
receiving the letter the woman went oat. Sowing comes before reaping. 
I failed through taking no pains. The soldier was promoted for doing his 
duty. Beady writing makes not good writing, bat good writing brings on 
ready writing. The boy had a passion for wandering and seeking adventorea. 

Tenses. 

269. Notice the following sets of sentences :— 

(1) Mr. Marshall lives in London. 
Mr. Marshall lived in York. 

Mr. Marshall vnll live in Naples. 

(2) Jack is in the playground now. 
Jack was in school this morning. 
Jack luill he on the river this evening. 

270. Each Verb gives us some notion of the time. 

Is and lives speak of present time. 
Was and Uved speak of past time. 
Will he and tvill Ivoe speak of future time. 

271. A Verb may thus have three times or Tenses^ — the 
Present, Past, and Future. 

272. The Future Tense is formed by means of the Auxiliaries 
shall and will. 

In expressing simple futurity shaU is used with Subjects of the 

First Person, and ivill with Subjects of the Second and Third Persons; 

as: — 

we sna \ ^^ school this afternoon. 
They will f * 

In expressing strong emphasis or determination, tvill is used with 
the First Person, and shall with the Second and Third ; as : — 

I WILL go to school this afternoon ; nothing shall hinder me. 

The foreigner who fell into deep water was therefore doubly wrong 
when he called out * I vdll drown and no one shall save me.* 

» From the French tempi, IVsae; ttoxDL>iXift"\AWfitt.Um'ft>i*»NJim^ 



ii8 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Shoald he be roused out of his sleep to-night .... 
It were [ = would be] not well. 

II he had killed me 
He had [ = would have] done a kinder deed. 

Hadst thou been killed when first thou didst presume, 
Thou hadst not lived to kill a son of mine. 

In Scotland they have narrow open ditches which they call sheep-drains. 
A man was one day riding a donkey across a sheep-pasture. When the 
animal came to a sheep-drain he would not go over it. So the man rode him 
back a short distance, turned him round and began to use the whip sharply. 
He thought the ass when going at full speed would jump the drain before 
he knew it ; but when the creature came to the drain he stopped all at once, 
and the rider was thrown over his head right across the drain. The man 
got up quickly and called out to the beast, ' That was very well pitched, but 
how are y<m going to get over ? * 



Participles. 

Si57. In the sentence 

' A man wearing a Black hat passed by,' 

man is the Subject and jpassed the Predicate. Wearing is joined 
to man like an Adjective and also does something of the work of 
a Verb because it shows us what the man is doing to the hat. 
Similarly in the sentence 

* The hat worn by the man was blaci:,' 

hat is the Subject di,ndi was hluch the Predicate, while t(;or;i is 
joined to hat like an Adjective and also does something of the 
work of a Verb. 

As the words wearing and worn thus partake of the nature 
of an Adjective and of a Verb they are called Participles.^ 

268. Every Verb has two Participles, the Imper&ot and the 
Perfect. 

The Imperfect Participle is called by some grammarians the Present 
and by some the Active ; the Perfect Participle is also called the Past 
and the Passive. 

' From the Laiinparticip-are^ to share, partake. 



PARTICIPLES 119 

. ^ _ 

259. The Imperfect Participle is always formed by adding 
'ing to the Verb; as, worh^ work-ing ; play, play-ing; read, 
read-ing, 

260. The spelling of the Verb is sometimes changed a Httle before 
the -ing is added. 

(1) When a Verb ends in e after a consonant, the e is dropped ; as 
love, lov-ing ; convince, convinc-ing ; make, mak-ing, 

A Verb ending in e not after a consonant does not change ; hie, hie-ing ; 
hoe, hoemg ; see, seeing. 

Note, however, die, dy-ing ; lie, ly-ing, 

(2) When a Verb of one syllable ends in a single consonant with a 
single vowel before it the consonant is doubled ; as, roh, rohh-ing ; sin, 
sinn-ing; bud, budd-ing. 

This rule also applies to .Verbs of more than one syllable when the 
accent falls on the last syllable ; as, rebel, rebell-vng ; commit^ com^ 
mitt-vng. 

Exercise 136. 

Write the Imperfect Participles of 

a. Beat. Break. Speak., Steal. Drink. Sing. Swear* Tread. Bing. 
Shrink. Spring. Blow. Grow. ^ow. Throw. Slay. Fly. Buy. Saw. 
Sow. Lay. 

b. Weave. Choose. Freeze. Strike. Drive. Give. Bise. Smite. 
Shake. Stride. Thrive. Write. Take. Bite. Chide. Hide. Slide. 
Seethe. 

c. See. Flee. Shoe. Hoe. Hie. Eye. Agree. Dye. 

d. Bid. Spin. Spit. Get. Win. Run. Cut. Hit. Knit. Put. 
Shed. Shut. SpUt. Beg. Bet. Blot. Brag. Cram. Swim [Consider 
the w a consonant]. 

e. Begin. Abet. Abhor. Acquit. Admit. Annul. Appal. Aver. 
Bedim. Commit. Compel. Concur. Defer. Dispel. Equip. 

Exercise 137. 

Pick out the Imperfect Pa/rticiples and say to what Noun [or 
Pronoun) each is joined. 

We saw a boy beating his donkey. The boy speaking to my sister is 
Jack Adams. The master caught his setvwxt, ^^fc^m^Vv^. '^'SX^.^ 5©»a!^ 



120 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

growing by the river is long and juicy. The arrow, glancing off a tree, hit 
tbe king. A hunter, shooting in the wood, found a badger. 

And children coming home from school 
Look in at the open door. 

He hears his daughter's voice 
Singing in the village choir. 

Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing. 
Onward through life he goes. 

There's a merry brown thrush sitting up in a tree. 

Then down a green plain, leaping, laughing, they ran. 

The man thus clamoriDg was, I scarce need say, 
No officer of ours. 

261. The Imperfect Participle of a Transitive Verb may 
take an Object ; as, * The boy painting [Imp. Part.] a picture 
[Obj.] is my hfother.' 

This is why the Imperfect is sometimes called the Active Participle. 

Exercise 138. 

Pick out the Imperfect Participles and the words which they 
govern in the Objective Case. 

My friends, expecting me, did not go out. Do you see that little girl 
blowing bubbles ? The boys throwing snowballs hurt an old man. The 
horses drawing the cart are thin. The men mowing the hay are Mr. White's 
workmen. The lady riding a bay horse is Miss Johnson. 

Little Jack Homer sat in a comer 
Eating a Christmas pie. 

Two little cherry lips 
Sending forth a song .... 

.... Gave thee such a tender voice 
Making all the vales rejoice. 

262. The Perfect Participle is formed in several ways. It is 
that part of the Verb used after * I have ' ; thus — 



PARTICIPLES 



121 



V&rh. 


I have 


Perfect Participle, 


walk 


walk-ed 


mount 


»» >» 


mount-ed 


knock 


i» »» 


knock-ed 


pray 


i» »» 


pray-ed 


beg 


i» »» 


begg-ed 


speak 


»i >♦ 


spok-en 


write 


»» »» 


writt-en 


grow 


>» »» 


grow-n 


swear 


»» »» 


swor-n 


begin 


i» »» 


beg-un 


buy 


)» » 


bought 


Remember that t] 


ie * I have ' is no 
Exercise 139. 


part of the Participle. 



Write down the Perfect Participles of 

Bloom. Start. Sail. Arrive. Open. Play. Call. Look. Climb. 
Talk. Act. Plough. Live. Owe. Gaze. Dye. Lie. Lay. Flee. Fly. 
Forget. Cling. Make. Go. Strike. Mow. Sow. Fall. Drive. Swear. 
Beat. 

Exercise 140. 

Pick out the Perfect Participles and say to what Noun or 
Pronoun each is joined. 

The task begun on Monday was very hard. I saw the book spoiled by 
Mary. The prisoner found guilty escaped. The trench dug across the 
street is full of water. Seed dropped by the roadside sprang up. The fire 
fanned by the wind grew very fierce. The army hemmed in on all sides 
surrendered. The fox hidden behind some bushes hoped to escape the 
farmer's notice. The signal flashed along the coast roused the sailors. 

Just to do good it seemed to move 
Directed by the hand of love. 

Up rose old Barbara Frietchie then 
Bowed with her four score years and ten. 

The wild beast stopped amazed. 

The wretch concentred all in self 
Living should forfeit fair renown, 
And doubly dying should go down 
To the vile duet from whence he sprung 
Unwept, unhonored wid \3L\i%\m%, 



I2« LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

283. Participles are often used as simple Adjectives of 
Quality ; as, * A loving friend ; ' * a 'printed book.' 

In parsing such Participles say that they are Imperfect or Perfect 
Participles used as Adjedives of QuaUty. 

Exercise 141. 

Fick out the Participles used as Adjectives ; say whether they 
are Imperfect or Perfect, and to what Nouns they are joined. 

This paper is white as the driven snow. That is now a forgotten story. 
We could not face the freezing wind. The speaker was received with ring- 
ing cheers. See the newly-risen sun. The generals had met on many a 
well-fought field. The sick child has sunken eyes. The spun silk is very 
fine. The chairman read the standing orders. Have you seen the picture 
of the reading girl ? What a striking likeness I This is the sworn testi- 
mony of the witness. The first boat passed the winning post two seconds 
before the next. The poor child has a beseeching look. The Jews were 
forbidden to make graven images. God tempers the wind to the shorn 
lamb. It is of no use crying over spilt milk. These chairs are made ol 
bent wood. 

• . . . The hawthorn bush with seats beneath the shade, 
For talking age and whispering lovers made. 

Shining eyes, very blue, 
Opened very wide. . . . 

Nay, start not at the sparkling light 

.... Well rewarded if I spy. 

Pleasure in thy glancing eye. 

Yon little twinkling stars that shine. • • • 

The valley smiled in living green. 

Exercise 142. 

Pick out the Participles and say whether they a/re 

a. Imperfect 

b. Perfect 

c. Imperfect used as Adjectives. 

d. Perfect used as Adjectives. 

His withered cheek and tresses gray 
Seemed to have known a better day. 
The harp, his sole remaining joy, 
Was carried by an orphan boy. • • « 



GERUNDS 111 



His tuneful brethren all were dead, 
And he, neglected and oppressed, 
Wished to be with them, and at rest. 

All day the low hung clouds 

Have dropped their garnered fulness dowa* 

There has not been a sound to-day 

To break the calm of nature, 
Nor motion, I might almost say. 

Of life, or living creature. 
Of waving bough or warbling bird, 

Or cattle faintly lowing ; 
I could have half believed I heard 

The leaves and blossoms growing. 

In an attitude imploring, 
Hands upon his bosom crossed. 
Wondering, worshipping, adoring. 
Knelt the monk in rapture lost. 

Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain, 
Where health and plenty cheered the laboring swain, 
Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid. 
And parting sunmier's lingering blooms delayed. 

Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing. 
Onward through life he goes. 

With upraised eyes, as one inspired, 
Pale Melancholy sat retired. 

Something attempted, something done^ 
Has earned a night's repose. 



Gerunds.^ 

264. A Participle may be called a Verbal- Adjective ; a Oenmd 
jnay be called a Verbal-Noun. 

265. The Gerund is formed like the Imperfect Participle, by 
adding -ing to the Verb, hut the two are entirely different in 
origin and in use, 

266. A Gerund has Case like a Noun, but it may also govern 
Case like a Verb. 

* See * Notes for Teachers,* p. 258, Note 37. Oerund, from the Latin ger-ere (Fntiira ^.i^. 
gerundiu\ to carry on. The reason for the term cannot \m c\mxV| wwuV^x&sa^ssc^''^^'^^:'^^ 



124 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Examples of Gerund as Subject, 

Beading is interesting. 
Walking is a healthy exercise. 
Writing is a useful art. 

Examples of Oenmd as Object 

I like riding. 

Jack taught him stvimming, 

Mary learns draiving. 

Examples of Gerund in the Objective Case after Prepositions^ ^ 

Mr. Sidney is fond of hu/nting. 

Wash before eating. 

Men who believe in working get on. 

Examples of Gerund governing and governed. 

I like reading history. 

Tom is fond of chopping wood. 

Herbert objects to studying music. 

267. Compound Gerunds may be formed from have and he^ 
followed by the Perfect Participle of the principal Verb ; as, * The 
man is sad from having lost his son ; ' ' The prophet wore a veil 
to keep his face from being seen,* 

268. Sometimes it is a little hard to say whether a word is 
an Abstract Noun or a Gerund. When it has an Article before 
it, or is followed by of, it had better be called a Noun [as, * After 
the passing of the Act,'] and when it has an Object it must be 
called a Gerund. 

In Parsing a Gerund say from what Verb it is formed, in what Case 
it is, and what Case (if any) it governs. 

Exercise 143. 

Pick out 

a. The Imperfect Participles, 

b. The Gerunds, 

and parse the Gerunds. 

In keeping Thy commaDdments there is great reward. Seeing is believ- 
Ing [Nona. Case]. After hearing the news I came away. Stanley, traveling 



\ 



TENSES 125 

across Africa, fouod Livingstone. Traveling is interesting. I am fond of 
traveling. Whipping a dead horse is foolish. The boy whipping a top is 
Eichard Nolan. Giving is more blessed than receiving [Nom. Case]. After 
receiving the letter the woman went out. Sowing comes before reaping. 
I failed through taking no pains. The soldier was promoted for doing his 
duty. Beady writing makes not good writing, but good writing brings on 
ready writing. The boy had a passion for wandering and seeking adventareck 

Tenses. 

269. Notice the following sets of sentences :^- 

(1) Mr. Marshall Uvea in London. 
Mr. Marshall lived in York. 

Mr. Marshall vnll Uve in Naples. 

(2) Jack is in the playground now. 
Jack was in school this morning. 
Jack vnll he on the river this evening. 

270. Each Verb gives us some notion of the time. 

Is and lives speak of present time. 
Was and Imed speak of jpast time. 
Will he and vnll Ivve speak of future time. 

271. A Verb may thus have three times or Tenses^ — the 
Present, Past, and Fatnre. 

272. The Future Tense is formed by means of the Auxiliaries 
shall and will. 

In expressing simple futurity sJucoU is used with Subjects of the 

First Person, and vdll with Subjects of the Second and Third Persons; 

as: — 

we slia I 1 ^^ school this afternoon. 
They mill J 

In expressing strong emphasis or determination, vnll is used with 
the First Person, and shall with the Second and Third ; as : — 

I WILL go to school this afternoon ; nothing shall hinder me. 

The foreigner who fell into deep water was therefore doubly wrong 
when he called out * I vnll drown and no one shall save me.* 

* From the French tempts Usae ; tcoTH \%i<b ^aXJ^ umi^MA>\2csB^ 



126 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 144. 

a. Give the Tense of each Verb. 

The wind blows hard. The wind blew hard. The wind will blow. The 
cock crows loudly. The cock crew at sunrise. The cock will crow to-morrow 
morning. Baby sleeps in the cradle. Baby slept on the bed. Baby will 
sleep in the cot. Mary loves her little lamb. Mary loved her little lamb. 
Mary will love her little lamb. I have a new top. I had a new top. I shall 
have a new top. Ethel has a rose. Ethel had a rose. Ethel will have a 
rose. Cromwell won many victories. The sun rises in the east. The little 
dog laughed. Our teacher will read us a story. I shall leave school next 
week. Jack sold his mother's cow. The green field sleeps in the sun. 

My heart leaps up when I behold 

A rainbow in the sky ; 
So was it when my life began ; 
So is it now I am a man ; 
So be > it when I shall grow old, 

Or let ' me die.* 

b. Fill the blank in each sentence with each Tense of the Verb 
given in the margin. 

The children .... in the 
The sun .... the com. 
Nellie .... her torn frock. 
The brothers .... to school. 
Flowers 
The tide 
We . . . 



Play 

Ripen 

Mend 

Come 

Bloom 

Ebb, flow 

Bathe 

Give 

Shine 

Bark 



The moon 
The stars 
The dog . 



. . . in sprmg. 
... anci .... 
every morning. 
.... light. 
. . . . brightly. 
. . . at the thief. 



273. With the help of be and have * we can give more definite 
notions of time than wculd be possible without Auxiliaries. 
Compare the four sentences : — 

I lea/m, 

I am^ leanvmg, 

I ha/ve learned. 

I ha/ve been learning. 

JWt tiy to give the Tenses of these Verbl. 
"JMm Inr Teachers,* p. 2ftB, lilole ^ 




TENSES 



I2*f 



(1) The first sentence shows that the action is present, but 
gives no more definite idea of time. Learn is therefore in the 
Present Indefi^dte Tense. 

(2) The second sentence shows that the action is going on at 
the present time—in other words, that it is not finished. Am 
learning^ therefore, is in the Present Imperfect Tense. 

(3) The third sentence shows that at the present time the 
action is finished. Have learned is therefore in the Present Per- 
fect Tense. 

Be careful not to say that Tiave lea/med is in the Past Tense. It is 
true that the action is finished, but we only 8^eak of it as being finished 
at present. 

(4) The fourth sentence shows that the action has been going 
on and is now finished. Have been learning is therefore in the 
Present Perfect Continuous Tense.^ 

274. The Past and Future Tenses are divided in the same 
way as the Present ; thus : — 



Present 

Past 

Future 



Indefinite. 



p] learn 
[I] learned 
[I] shall learn 



Imperfect. 



[I] am learning 
[I] was learning 



Perfect. 



[I] have learned 
[I] had learned 



[I] shall have 
learned 



Perfect 
Continuous. 



[I] have been 

learning 
p] had been 

learning 
[I] shall have 
been learning 



[I] shall be learn- 
ing 

276. Note that 

(1) In the Imperfect Tenses we have a part of the Verb to be and 
the Imperfect Participle. 

(2) In the Perfect Tenses we have a part of the Verb to have and 
the Perfect Participle. 

(3) In the Perfect Continuous Tenses we have a part of the Verb 
to ha/vCy the Perfect Participle of the Verb to be and the Imperfect 
Participle of the principal Verb. 

Exercise 145. 

Give the Tense of each Verb. 

Our dog howls in the night. Our dog is howling. Our dog has howled 
for an hour. Our dog has been howling. The snow fell thick. The «v<^^ 

* See 'Notes fox Teachsei^' i^.^^%,^q>\a&. 



128 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



was falling fast. Snow has fallen in the night. Snow has been falling for 
some time. We shall shoot hares and rabbits. We shall be shooting to- 
morrow. Perhaps by noon we shall have shot five rabbits. Cats sometimes 
fight. Two cats are fighting in the garden. They have been fighting for 
five minutes. They have fou^t before. The oarsmen bathed in the river. 
They were bathing at eight o'clock. They had been bathing for ten minutes. 
They had bathed in the sea the day before. By three o'clock the auctioneer 
will have been selling goods for two hours. He wiU have finished at four. 
He will have sold a hundred lots. He will sell ten more. 

The cock is crowing, 
The stream is flowing. 
The small birds twitter. 

The warm sun is failing, the bleak winds are wailing, 
The bare boughs are sighing, the pale flowers are dying. 

So we shuddered there in silence. 

For the stoutest held his breath, 
While the hungry sea was roaring. 

And the breakers threatened death. 

But redder yet that light shall glow 
On Linden's hills of purple snow. 

276. The following table shows the forms of the Tenses of 
Verbs in the Passive Voice. 



Present 

Past 

Future 



Indefinite, 



[I] am taught 
[I] was taught 
[IJ shall be taught 



Imperfect. 



(T] am being taught 
[I] was being taught 
[IJ shall be being 



Perfect, 



[I] have been taught 
[I] had been taught 
[I] shall have been 
taught 



taught 

277. The Perfect Continuous would be • I have been being taught,* 
but such a clumsy form is never used. Indeed, some of the forms 
in the table are hardly ever used. Most people, for example, instead 
of saying • I shall be being taught by Mr. Brown,' would avoid the 
Passive and say, * Mr. Brown will be teaching me.* 

Exercise 146. 

Give the Tense of each Verb. 

Bread is made by bakers. The cake is being made by the cook. The 
pie has been made since this morning. The horse had been sold. The 
pony was sold this morning. The farm was being sold then. The servant 
will be called at seven. Perhaps your name will have been called. 

Addttional Sentences .-—Exercises ^0 b and 122. 



TENSES 



129 



278. Hitherto we have been dealing with the Tenses of the 
Indicative Mood. The following table shows the Tenses of the 
Subjunctive Mood : — 



Present 
Past 



Present 



Past 



Indefinite. 



Imperfect. 



Perfect. 



Perfect 
Continuot» 



Active Voice. 



[Though 
strike 

[Though 
struck 



he] 
he] 



[Though he] 
be striking 

[Though he] 
were striking 



[Though he] 
have struck 

[Though he] 
had struck 



[Though he] have 
been striking 

[Though he] had 
been striking 



Passive Voice. 



[Though he] 
be struck 

[Though he] 
were struck 



[Though he] be 
being struck 

[Though he] 
were being 
struck 



[Though 
have 
struck 

[Though 
had 
struck 



he] 
been 

he] 
been 



See Paragraph^n. 



279. There is, properly speaking, no Future Tense of the Subjunc- 
tive Mood. * Though he should strike * looks like Future, but it will 
be seen that the d in should is a sign of the Past. 

280. The Imperative has no Tense. 

28L The Infinitive has no Present, Past, or Future, but it 
mav be — 

Acti/oe. Passive. 



Indefinite 

Imperfect 

Perfect 

Perfect Continuous 



[To] be struck 

[To] have been struck 



[To] strike 
[To] be striking 
[To] have struck 
[To] have been striking 

282. The Participle also has no Present, Past, or Future, 

but it may be — 

Active. Passive. 



Imperfect 

Perfect 

Perfect Continuous 



Striking 
Having struck 
Having been striking 



Being struck 

Struck, or Having been struck 



Exercise 147. 



Oive the Tense of each Verb in Exercises 180, 182, 188^ 184^ 
and 142. 



!*> 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Strong and Weak Verbs. 

283. Verbs are either Strong or Weak. 

284. Strong Verbs are those which form the Past Tense and 
the Perfect Participle by a change of Vowel sound ; as — 



Tre%ent. 
throw 
give 
stand 
strike 



FoAt Tense, 
threw 
gave 
stood 
struck 



Per/. Part 
thrown 
given 
stood 
struck 



285. Weak Verbs are those which form the Past Tense and 
Perfect Participle by the addition of -ed or ^; as— 

Present Past Perf, Part 

allow allow-ed allow-ed 

laugh laugh-ed laugh-ed 

yield yield-ed yield-ed 

sleep slept slept 

The changes of spelling which are made before -mg [see Paragraph 
260] are also made before -ed. 

286. Strong Verbs are sometimes called Irregula/r, and Weak 
Verbs Begular^ but the terms are not quite satisfactory, for there is 
some regularity among the Strong Verbs, and some irregularity among 
the Weak ones. 



287. 



Strong Verbs.^ 



Alphabetically arranged. 

[Weak forms are printed in italics ; forms not now used are placed in square brackets.] 



Present 



abide 

arise 

awake 

bear (bring 

forth) 
bear (carry) 
beat 
beigin 



Past Perf. Part. 



abode 



abode 

arose | arisen 

awoke ' awoke 

[awaked] I awaked 
bore [bare] bom 

I 
bore [bare] , borne 
beat ' beaten 

began begun 



Present 


Past 


Perf. Part 


behold 


beheld 


beheld, 
[beholden] 


bid 


bade, bid 


bidden, bid 


bind 


bound 


bound 
[bounden] 


bite 


bit 


bitten, bit 


blow 


blew 


blown 


break 


broke 
[brake] 


broken 



' See * Notes for Teacliers,* p. 26S, Koibe ao. 



STRONG VERBS 



'31 



Strong Ni^b,b^— continued. 






Present, 


Past, 


Perf,Part, 


Present, 


Past, 


Perf, Part 


burst 


burst 


burst 


know 


knew 


known 






[bursten] 


lade 




laden 


chide 


[chode]chid 


chidden, 




laded 


laded 






chid 


He 


lay 


lain 


choose 


chose 


chosen 


lose 




lorn, 


cleave 


clovefclave] 


cloven 






(forlorn) 


<8plit) 

climb 


cUft 


cleft 




lost 


lost 


[clomb] 




melt 




molten 




climbed 


climbed 




melted 


melted 


cling 


clung 


clung 


mow 




mown 


come 


came 


come 




mowed 


mowed 


crow 


crew 


[crown] 


ride 


rode [rid] 


ridden 




crowed . 


crowed 






[rid] 


do 


did 


done 


ring 


r«ng 


rung 


draw 


drew 


drawn, 
drunk, 


rise 


rose 


risen 


drink 


drank 


rive 




riven 






drunken 




rived 


rived 


drive 


drove 


driven 


run 


ran 


run 




[drave] 




AAA 


saw 


seen 


eat 


ate 


eaten 


seethe 


sod 


sodden 


faU 


fell 


fallen 




seethed 


seethed 


fight 


fought 


fought 


shake 


shook 


shaken 






[foughten] 


shave 


shaved 


shaven 


find 


found 


found 






shaved 


fling 


flung 


flung 


shear 


shea/red 


shorn 


fly 


flew 


flown 






sheared 


forbear 


forbore 


forborne 


shine 


shone 


shone 


forget 


forgot 


forgotten 




shmed 


shined 




[forgat] 


[forgot] 


shoot 


shot 


shot 


forsake 


forsook 


forsaken 


shrink 


shrank 


shrank, 


freeze 


froze 


frozen 






shrunken 


get 


got [gat] 


got, gotten 


sing 


sang 


sung 


give 


gave 


given 


sink 


sank 


sunk. 


go 


went * 


gone 






sunken 


grave 


graved 


graven 


sit 


sat 


sat 


grind 


ground 


ground 


slay 


slew 


slain 


grow 


grew 


grown 


slide 


sUd 


slid, 


hang 


hung 


hung 






sUdden 




hanged 


hanged 


sling 


slung 


slung 


heave 


[hove] 




slink 


slunk 


slunk 




heaved 


heaved 


smite 


smote 


smitten 


help 




[holpen] 




[smit] 


[smit] 




helped 


helped 


sow 




sown 


hew 




hewn 




sowed 


sowed 




hewed 


hewed 


speak 


spoke 


spoken 


hold 


held 


held 




[spake] 








[holden] 


spin 


spun 


SQUH 



*■ ir«iUiareaXL7\i\x&'e«sXolwe«^^^. 



'^.'^ 



132 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Stbonq Verbs — continued. 



Perf, Part 



Present. 


Past, 


spring 


sprung, 


stand 


sprang 
stood 


steal 


stole 


sting 
stink 


stung 
stank 


stride 


strode 


strike 


struck 


strive 


strove 


swear 


swore 


swell 


[sware] 




swelled 


swim 


swam 


swing 


swung 



Present, 


Past 


Perf, Part. 


take 


took 


taken 


tear 


tore, tare 


torn 


thrive 


throve 


thriven 




thrvoed 


thrived 


throw 


threw 


thrown 


tread 


trod 


trodden 
trod 


wake 


woke 






waked 


waked 


weave 


wove 


woven 


win 


won 


won 


wind 


wound 


wound 


wrmg 


wrung 


wrung 


write 


wrote [wnt] 


written 


wear 


wore 


worn 



sprung 

stood 

stolen 

stung 

stunk 

stridden 

struck 

[stricken] 
striven 
sworn 

swollen 

swelled 
swum 
[swung 

288. Most Weak Verbs are quite regular, but there are a 
few which may not be at once recognized as Weak. Dr. Morris 
divides these apparently irregular Verbs into two classes. 

Class I. consists of Verbs which form the Past Tense and 
Perfect Participle by adding -t or -d with a change of vowel 
sound. 

Class n. consists of Verbs which end in the Present mtord. 
These Verbs formerly added de or te to form the Past Tense, 
but in course of time the Past Tense and Perfect Participle were 
shortened, so that fed-de became fed, sende became sent, set-te 
became set, etc. 



289. Weak Verbs apparently Irregular. 

Class I. 

Alphabetically arranged. 



Present, 



bereave 

beseech 
bring 
barn 
buy 
eatob 



Past. 



/ 



bereft, 
bereaved 

besought 

brought 

burnt 
bought 
caught I 



Perf, Part, 



bereft, 
bereaved 
besought 
brought 
burnt 
bought 
oaeught 



Present. 


Past. 


Perf, Pott 


deave 


cleft 


cleft 


(spUt) 






creep 


crept 


crept 


deal 


dealt 


dealt 


dream 


dreamt, 


dreamt, 




L dreamed 


dreamed 


1 dwell 


V^^^ 



* Anglo-Saxon /nl-de, settde, tette. 



WEAK VERBS 



X33 



Weak Verbs — continued. 



Present 



fell 
flee 
have 

hide 

keep 

kneel 

lay 

lean 

leap 
leave 
lose 
make 

mean 

pay 

pen 



Past, 



felt 

fled 

had 

(= haved) 

hid * 

kept 

knelt 

laid 

leant, 

leaned 
leapt 
left 
lost 
made 

(= maked) 
meant 
paid 
pent, 

penned 



Perf, Part. 



felt 
fled 
had 

hid, hidden 
kept 
knelt 
laid 
leant, 
leaned 
leapt 
left 
lost 
made 

meant 
paid 
pent, 
penned 



Present. 



rap (to 
transport) 
rot 

say 

seek 

seU 

shoe 

sleep 

spell 

spill 

stay 

sweep 

teach 

teU 

think 

weep 

work 



Past. 



rapt 

rotted 

said 

sought 

sold 

shod 

slept 

spelt 

spilt 

staid, 

stayed 
swept 
taught 
told 

thought 
wept 
wrought, 
worked 



Perf.Pwrt. 



rapt 

rotten, 
rotted 

said 

sought 

sold 

shod 

slept 

spelt 

spilt 

staid, 
stayed 

swept 

taught 

told 

thought 

wept 

wrought, 
worked 



290. 



Present 
bend 

bleed 

breed 

build 

cast 

cost 

cut 

feed 

gild 

gird 

hit 

hurt 

knit 

lead 

let 

light 

meet 
put 



Class II. 
Alphabetically arranged. 



Past. 



bent 

bled 

bred 

built 

cast 

cost 

cat 

fed 

gilt, 

gilded 
girt 
hit 
hurt 
knit 
led 
let 
lit, 

lighted 
met 
put 



Perf. Part 


Present 


bent, 


read 


bended 


rend 


bled 


rid 


bred 


send 


built 


set 


cast 


shed 


cost 


shred 


cut 


shut 


fed 


sUt 


gilt, 


speed 


gilded 


spend 


girt 


spit 


hit 


split 


hurt 


spread 


knit 


sweat 


led 


thrust 


let 

Mi. 


wet 



lighted 
met 
put 



whet 



Past 



V 



read 

rent 

rid 

sent 

set 

shed 

shred 

shut 

sUt 

sped 

spent 

spit, spat 

split 

spread 

sweat 

thrust 

wet, 

wetted 
whet. 



\ 



Perf. Part 

read 
rent 
rid 
sent 
set 
shed 
shred 
shut 
sUt 
sped 
spent 
spit 
split 
spread 
sweat 
thrust 
wet, 
wetted 
whet, 



\ 



134 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 148. 

a. Divide the following Verbs into Weak and Strong. 

Beat» Freeze. Tear. Have. Write. Keep. Bleed. Cast. Gut. 
Clothe. Fly. Flee. Grow. Pay. Let. Set. Shed. Get. Lie. Lay. 
Sleep. Split. Thrust. Engage. Break. Bon. Bide. Learn. Wash. 
Incline. Bepose. Pray. Sing. Think. 

b. Make a list of Strong Verbs which have also fVeak forms. 

c. Correct ^ the mistakes in the following sentences. 

Jack has beat his brother. The children had began to learn French. 
William has wrote a letter. The man had broke his leg. My father has just 
came back from France. The dog has ate its dinner. I have forgot my books. 
The girl had gave her pencil to her brother. The dog laid on the mat. 
Mary has a headache and is laying down. She has sang a pretty song. 
Who has rang the bell ? The water pipes are froze. The child has drank 
the medicine. The girl was drove to despair. I had fell and hurt my leg. 
The fight begun at nine o'clock. 

d. Pick out other Strong Verbs which form their Past Tense 
and Perfect Participle like — 

Blow. Sing. Speak. Give. Shake. Thrive. Freeze. 

Person and Number. 

291. The Person and Number of a Verb are the same as the 
Person and Nmnber of its Subject. 

In the sentence 

I write, 

the Subject I is of the First Person and Singular Number ; therefore 

the Verb ivrite is also of the First Person and Singular Number. 

In the sentence 

We write, 

we is of the First Person and Plural Number ; therefore write is also 

of the First Person and Plural Number. 

In the sentence 

You write, 

you is of the Second Person and Plural Number ; therefore tmite is 
also of the Second Person and Plural Number. 

' See ' Notes for Teacliers,* p. 268, Note 31 . 



CONJUGA TION 135 



In the sentence 

They write, 

ihey is of the Third Person and Plural Number ; therefore vyriie is 
also of the Third Person and Plural Number. 

Exercise 149. 

Gvte the Person and Number of each Verb. 

I call. Thou callest. He calls. She calls. It calls. We call. Tou 
call. They call. James ' loves his mother. The cat is playing with her 
kittens. The boys are playing cricket. He hath his reward. The horse 
fell. Fred will return soon. They have learned their lessons. Te are idle. 
Have we any bread ? I ran. He ran. We ran. You ran. They ran. It 
will rain« 

Conjugation. 

292. When we show the forms which a Verb can take in all 
its Moods, Tenses, Persons, and Numbers, we are said to Conju- 
gate ^ it. 

293. It will be seen that the endings of Person and Number 
now remaining in English are very few. 



294. Conjugation of the Verb Have. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Indefinite Tense, . . . [To] have. 
Perfect Tense [To] have had. 

PAKTICIPLES. 

Imperfect Having. 

Perfect Had. 

Compound Perfect. . • . Having had. 



3 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Indefinite Tbnse. 
Singular, 

1. [I] have. 

2. [Thou] hast. 

3. [He] has. 



Plural, 

1. [We] have. 

2. [You] have. 

3. [They] have. 



* Bemember that all Nouns which are subjects of sentences are of the Third Person. 
' Latin eonjug-are^ to join together. A particular conjugation therefore consists of all 
the Terbs which may be considered joined together because undergoias^ ttva <ss8Bcsi& OosssiSKia^ 
' See ' Notes for Teachers,' p. 259, Note 92. 



-ISLzS 






■•■r ■ 



.-!'- 



irri. 



r^ 



"\ . i" 



V'»- 



■fc »«1 



»rr- 



CONJUGA TION 



137 



Present Perfect Tense. 
Bing%CLa/r. 

1. [I] have had. 

2. [Thou] have had. 

3. [He] have had. 



IPVwral, 

1. [We] have had. 

2. [Tou] have had. 
2. [They] have had. 



Past Indefinite and Past Perfect Tenses. 
The forms are the same as those of the Indicative Mood. 



296. Conjugation of the Verb B©. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

In&ejiniiA Tense To be. 

Perfect Tense To have been. 



PARTICIPLES. 

Imperfect Being. 

Perfect, ...... Been. 

Compound Perfect Having been. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [T] am. 

2. [Thou] art. 

3. [He] is. 



Plural, 

1. [We] are. 

2. [You] are. 

3. [They] are. 



Present Perfect Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] have been. 

2. [Thou] hast been. 

3. [He] has been. 



Plural, 

1. [We] have been. 

2. [You] have been, 

3. [They] have been. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] was. 

2. [Thou] wast. 
8. [He] was. 



Plural, 

1. [We] were. 

2. [You] were. 



136 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Present Perfect Tense. 

1. [I] have had. 

2. [Thou] hast had. 
8. [He] has had. 



"Plural, 

1. [We] have had. 

2. [You] have had. 

3. [They] have had. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 



SingtUar. 

1. [I] had. 

2. [Thou] hadst. 
8. [He] had. 



Plural, 

1. [We] had. 

2. [You] had. 

3. [They] had. 



Singular, 

1. [I] had had. 

2. [Thou] hadst had. 

3. [He] had had. 



Past Perfect Tense. 

Plu/ral, 

1. [We] had had. 

2. [You] had had. 

3. [They] had had. 



Future Indefinite Tense. 



SingtUar. 

1. [I] shall have. 

2. [Thou] wilt have. 

3. [He] will have. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall have. 

2. [You] will have. 
3- [They] will have. 



Future Perfect Tense. 
Singular. 

1. [I] shall have had. 

2. [Thou] wilt have had. 

3. [He] will have had. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall have had. 

2. [You] will have had. 

3. [They] will have had. 



IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
2. Have [thou]. 



Plural. 
2. Have [ye or you]. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.i 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



•Singular. 

1. [Tj have. 

2. [Thou] have. 

3. [He] have. 



Plural. 

1. [We] have. 

2. [You] have. 

3. [They] have. 



' Some Conjunction (such as if^ though, thai^ unless) should be placed before the Yerb, 
ifat the Conjunction ia no part of the Mood. 



CONJUGA TION 



137 



Present Perfect Tense. 



SingviXa/r. 

1. {T| have had. 

2. [Thou] have had. 

3. [He] have had. 



IPlwral. 

1. [We] have had. 

2. [You] have had. 
2. [They] have had. 



Past Indefinite and Past Perfect Tenses. 
The forms are the same as those of the Indicative Mood. 



296. Conjugation of the Verb B©. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

In&efiniiA Tense To be. 

Perfect Tense To have been. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Imperfect Being. 

Perfect, ...... Been. 

Compound Perfect Having been. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [T] am. 

2. [Thou] art. 

3. [He] is. 



Plural, 

1. [We] are. 

2. [You] are. 

3. [They] are. 



Present Perfect Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] have been. 

2. [Thou] hast been. 

3. [He] has been. 



Plural, 

1. [We] have been. 

2. [Ton] have been. 

3. [They] have been. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] was. 

2. [Thou] wast. 
8. [He] was. 



Plural, 

1. [We] were. 

2. [Youlwer^. 



138 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Past Perfect Tense. 
BingvUar, 

1. [I] had been. 

2. [Thou] hadst been. 

3. [He] had been. 



FliirdX. 

1. [We] had been. 

2. [You] had been. 

3. [They] had been. 



Future Indefinite Tense. 



SingvXar, 

1. [Tj shall be. 

2. [Thou] wilt be. 
8. [He] will be. 



Flural, 

1. [We] shall be. 

2. [You] will be. 

3. [They] will be. 



Future Perfect Tense. 



Svngular, 

1. [I] shall have been. 

2. [Thou] wilt have been. 
8. [He] will have been. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall have been. 

2. [You] will have been. 

3. [They] will have been. 



mPEEATIVB MOOD. 



Singular, 
2. Be [thou]. 



Plurah 
2. Be [ye or you]. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.^ 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [Tlbe. 

2. [Thou] be. 
8. [He] be. 



Plural, 

1. [We] be. 

2. [You] be. 

3. [They] be. 



Present Perfect Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] have been. 

2. [Thoif] have been. 

3. [He] have been. 



Plural, 

1, [We] have been. 

2. [You] have been. 
8. [They] have been. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] were. 

2. [Thou] wert. 

3. [He] were. 



Plural, 

1. [We] were. 

2. [You] were. 

3. [They] were. 



Past Perfect Tense. 
The forms are the same as those of the Indicative Mood. 



* See footnote, p. 136. 



CONJUGA TION 



»39 



296. Conjugation of the Verb Call. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Indefinite Tenae, 
Impeffect Tense, 
Perfect Tense, . 



[To] caU. 
[To] be calling. 
[To] have called. 



Perfect Continwms Tense, , [To] have been calling. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Imperfect Calling. 

Perfect Having called. 

Perfect Continuous . . . Having been calling. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] call. 

2. [Thou] call-eit. 

3. [He] call-i or call-eth. 



Plural. 

1. [We] calL 

2. [You] call. 

3. [They]calL 



Present Imperfect Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] am calling. 

2. [Thou] art calling. 
8. [He] is calling. 



Plural, 

1. [We] are calling. 

2. [You] are calling. 

3. [They] are calling. 



Present Perfect Tense. 



Si/ngular, 

1. [I] have called. 

2. [Thou] hast called. 
8. [He] has called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] have called. 

2. [You] have called. 

3. [They] have called. 



Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] have been calling. 

2. [Thou] hast been calling. 
8. [He] has been calling. 



Plural, 

1. [We] have been calling. 

2. [You] have been calling. 



I40 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Past Indefinite TkNSE. 



SvngtUar. 

1. [I] called. 

2. [Thou] oalled-it. 
8. [He] called. 



PltirdL 

1. [We] called. 

2. [You] called. 

3. [They] called. 



Past "Imperfect Tense. 



1. [I] was calling. 

2. [Thou] wast calling. 
S. [He] was calling. 



Plural. 

1. [We] were calling. 

2. [You] were calling. 

3. [They] were calling. 



Singular, 

1. [I] had called. 

2. [Thou] hadst called. 
8. [He] had called. 



Past Perfect Tense. 

Plural. 

1. [We] had called. 

2. [You] had called. 

3. [They] had called. 



Past Perfect Continuous Tense. 
Singular, l Plural. 



L [I] had been calling. 

2. [Thou] hadst been calling. 

8. [He] had been calling. 



1. [We] had been calling. 

2. [You] had been calling. 

3. [They] had been calling. 



Future Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] shall call. 

2. [Thou] wilt call. 

3. [He] will call. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall calL 

2. [You] will call. 

3. [They] will calL 



Future Imperfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] shall be calling. 

2. [Thou] wilt be calling. 

3. [He] will be calling. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall be calling. 

2. [You] will be calling. 

3. [They] will be calling. 



Future Perfect Tense. 



Singular. 
1. [I] shall have called. 
^. [Thou] wilt have called. 
A /Sd/ will have called. 



1. [We] shall have called. 

2. \Yovl] will have called. 
S. (TViey^ "vn^ll hai^e called. 



CONJUGATION 



141 



Future Perfect Continuous Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [Tj shall have been calling. 

2. [Thou] wilt have been calling. 

3. [He] will have been calling. 



"Plural, 

1. [We] shall have been calling. 

2. [Ton] will have been calling 
8. [They] will have be^n calling 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular, 
2. CaU [thou] 



Plural, 
2. Call [ye or you]. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] call. 

2. [Thou] call. 

3. [He] call. 



Plural, 

1. [We] call. 

2. [You] call. 

3. [They] call. 



Present Imperfect Tense. 
Singular, \ Plural, 



1. [I] be calling. 

2. [Thou] be calling. 

3. [He] be calling. 



1. [We] be calling. 

2. [You] be calling. 

3. [They] be calling. 



Present Perfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] have called. 

2. [Thou] have called. 

3. [He] have called. 



Plural, 

1. [We] have called. 

2. [You] have called. 
8. [They] have called. 



Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 

Plural, 



Singular, 

1. \T] have been calling. 

2. [Thou] have been calling. 

3. [He] have been calling. 



1. [We] have been calling. 

2. [You] have been calling 

3. [They] have beencalling. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 
[Ab in the IndicaU^^ l&.<yA^ 



142 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Past Imperfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. \J] were calling. 

2. [Thou] wert calling. 
8. [He] were calling. 



Plural, 

1. [We] were calling. 

2. [Tou] were calling. 

3. [They] were calling. 



Past Perfect Tense, 
and 
Past Perfect Continuous Tense 
[As in the Indicative Mood]. 

297. PASSIVE VOICE. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Indefinite Tense. . . [To] be called. 
Perfect Tense. . . . [To] have been called. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Imperfect. . . Being called. 

Perfect. . . Galled, or having been called. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] am called. 

2. [Thou] art called. 

3. [Be] is called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] are called. 

2. [f ou] are called. 

3. [They] are called. 



Present Imperfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. \I] am being called. 

2. [Thou] art being called. 

3. [He] is being called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] are being called. 

2. [You] are being called. 

3. [They] are being called. 



Present Perfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. p] have been called. 

2. [Thou] hast been called. 
A fHeJ baa been called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] have been called. 

2. [Tou] have been called. 

3. [They] have been called. 



CONJUGA riON 



H3 



Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular 

1. (T| was called. 

2. [Thou] wast called. 

3. [He] was called. 



^lurah 

1. [We] were called. 

2. [You] were called. 

3. [They] were called. 



Past Imperfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] was being called. 

2. [Thou] wast being called. 

3. [He] was being called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] were being called. 

2. [You] were being called. 

3. [They] were being called. 



Past Perfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] had been called. 

2. [Thou] hadst been called. 

3. [He] had been called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] had been called. 

2. [You] had been called. 

3. [They] had been called. 



Future Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] shall be called. 

2. [Thou] wilt be called. 
S. [He] will be called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall be called. 

2. [You] will be called. 

3. [They] will be called. 



Future Perfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] shall have been called. 

2. [Thou] wilt have been called. 

3. [He] will have been called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] shall have been called. 

2. [You] will have been called. 

3. [They] will have been called. 



Singular. 
2. Be [thou] called. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Plural. 
2. Be [ye or you] called* 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] be called. 

2. [Thou] be called. 

3. [He] be called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] be called. 

2. [You] be called. 



144 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Pbesent Imfgbfect Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [T] be being called. 

2. [Thou] be being called. 

3. [He] be being called. 



PluraU 

1. [We] be being called. 

2. [Ton] be being called. 

3. [They] be being called. 



Present Perfect Tense. 
Singular. 

1. [I] have been called. 

2. [Thou] have been called. 
2. [He] have been called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] have been called. 
3. [You] have been called. 

2. [They] have been called. 



Singular. 

1. [I] were called. 

2. [Thou] wert called. 

3. [He] were called. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 

Plural. 

1. [We] were called. 

2. [You] were called. 

3. [They] were called. 



Past Imperfect Tense. 
Singidar. 

1. [I] were being called. 

2. [Thou] wert being called. 

3. [He] were being called. 



Plural. 

1. [We] were being called. 

2. [You] were being called. 

3. [They] were being called. 



Past Perfect Tense. 
[As in the Indicative Mood.] 



Exercise 150. 

1. What Verb is used as the Auxiliary of the Imperfect Tenses ? 

2. What Verb is used as the Auxiliary of the Perfect Tenses ? 

3. What part of the principal Verb is used in the Imperfect Tenses ol 
the Active Voice and of Intransitive Verbs ? 

4. What part of the principal Verb is used in the Perfect Tenses of the 
Active Voice and of Intransitive Verbs ? 

5. What is the Auxiliary of the Passive Voice ? 

6. What part of the principal Verb is used in the Passive Voice ? 

7. What are the endings of the Second and Third Persons Singular ol 
the Present Indefinite Tense of the Indicative Mood ? 

8. What is the ending of the Second Person Singular of the Past Inda- 
JStu'ie Tense of the Indicadve Mood ? 



CONJUGATION 



'^^^ 



298. The Verbs shall^ will, may, must, can, otight, dare, and 
do (as an auxiliary) lack some of the usual forms, or are other- 
wise irregular. 

Verbs which lack some of the usual forms are called Defeotiva. 



299, Conjugation of the Verb ShalL 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
t^BESENT Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] shall. 

2. [Thou] shalt. 

3. [He] shall. 



Piurah 

1. [We] shall. 

2. [You] shall. 

3. [They] shall. 



INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOODS. 
Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] should. 

2. [Thou] shouldst. 

3. [He] should. 



Plural. 

1. [We] should. 

2. [You] should. 

3. [They] should. 



300. Conjugation of the Verb 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] will. 

2. [Thou] wilt. 

3. [He] will. 



Plural. 

1. [We] will. 

2. [You] wilL 

3. [They] will. 



INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOODS. 
Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular. 

1. [I] would. 

2. [Thou] wouldst. 
8. [He] would. 



\ 



Plural. 

1. [We] would. 

2. [You] would. 



146 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



301. Conjugation of the Verb May. 

INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOODS. 
Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] may. 

2. [Thou] mayest or mayst. 
S. [He] may. 



Plural, 

1. [We] may. 

2. [You] may. 

3. [They] may. 



Past Indefinite Tense. 



Singular, 

1. [I] might. 

2. [Thon] mightest. 

3. [He] might. 



PZwmZ. 

1. [We] might. 

2. [You] might. 

3. [They] might. 



302. ikfi^^ has now no change of form. 



303. Conjugation of the Verb Can. 

INDICATIVE Moot). 



Present Indefinite Tense. 



Singfula/r, 

1. [I] can. 

2. [Thou] canst. 

3. [He] can. 



Plural. 

1. [We] can. 

2. [You] can. 

3. [They] can. 



INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOODS. 

Past Indefinits Tense. 
Svngula/r, 

1. |T| could. 

2. [Thou] couldest or could. 

3. [He] could. 



"Plural. 

1. [We] could. 

2. [You] could. 

3. [They] could. 



304. Ought has but one change ; it adds -est for Second 
Person Singular. 

305. Bare in the Present has the same single change aa 
ot^kt. The Paat is durst. 



* DO ' 147 

306. Do as a principal Verb is conjugated regularly. 

307. Do is used as an Auxiliary : — 

1. To make the sentence sound better ; as, 

Thou do8t prefer above all temples the upright heart and pure. 

It is greatly used for this purpose in poetry ; as, 

Horses did neigh and dying men did groan 

And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets. 

2. To mark emphasis ; as, 

• You cannot mean what you say.' — * I do mean it.* 

8. With not ; as. 

He does not want you. 

They do not know their own minds. 

Tom d^d not intend to hurt you. 

4. In asking a question ; as, 

Do you live in Brighton now ? 

Did she hear from her father last week ? 

Does Mary learn French ? 

308. The Verb affcer do is often understood ; as, 

I cannot write as well as you do [write]. 
Does Tom like drawing ? He does [like it]. 
Did the doctor call this morning ? He d4d [call]. 

309. When ^ is an Auxiliary, parse it and its principal Verb 
together as one Verb. 

Exercise 151. 

a. Say whether the Verb do in each of the following sentences 
is an Atcxiliary or a Principal Verb : — 

I do think of yea daily. My sister did expect you. Can the children 
do their tasks ? Alfred does not feel well. The gardener is doing his work. 
Mr. Howard hopes to do well in Australia. How do yon do that ? How 
did his father hear the news ? The soldier did his duty, but the sailor did 
not do his. I may see him this evening ; I will give him your meaaa^« il 
I do. Flee evil and do good. TMathin^^«k^xio\,^QTy^SxL^^»scwst. 



148 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

b. Say in which of the four ways named in Par, 806 do is 
used in each of the following sentences : — 

Never did any man work harder. I did not hear a sound. We do not 
know whom you mean. Some answered and some did not. He really does 
feel sorry. Did this train come from Brighton ? When they do agree their 
unanimity is wonderful. The doctor does not think there is any danger ; 
nor do I think there is any. Do you confess the bond ? I do. I did love 
him but I scorn him now. 

Once again 
Do I behold those steep and lofty cliffs. 

When the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees, 
And they did make no noise. 

This just reproach their virtue does exciter 

Expletives their feeble aid do join. 



Agreement of Verbs. 

Bead again Par. 291. 

310. When the Subject of a sentence consists of two or more 
Nouns joined by and, the Verb must be Plural ; as, ' John and 
James are coming.' 

This rule applies to Pronouns also ; as, * She and her brother are 
coming ; * * He and she were late.' 

311. When the Subject consists of two or more Singular 
Nouns joined by or, either — or, or neither—nor, the Verb must 
be Singular ; as, ' Either the master or the servant was present ; ' 
' Neither the master nor the servant has returned.' 

312. Collective Nouns when Singular may take a Plural 
Verb when the speaker is thinking of the separate things rather 
than of the multitude ; as, * The nobility of Eome are his.' 

In the case of some Collective Nouns custom is not settled. Thus 
we can say * The Board has met,' * The Committee has resolved,' or 
'Tlie Board have met,' * The Committee h(W6 resolved.' 



REVIEW OF VERBS 



149 



Exercise 152. 

a, Gvoe the Number and Person of the Verbs printed in 
italics. 

Gold and silver are reckoned precioas. The mistress and the maid have 
returned, Frank and Harry are going. Mary, Ethel, and Nellie are the 
best girls in the class. The lark and the nightingale sing at different times. 
Sword and helmet are laid aside. Copper and tin are found in England. 
He and his coasin learn French. He and I are both hungry. The meeting 
is disorderly. Some boys go barefooted. Congress has just adjourned. 
The mob was dispersed. The cattle on a thousand hills are his. Then ye 
are only five. Talking and eloquence ore not the same ; to talk and to talk 
well are two things. 

Furious Frank and fiery Hun 

Shout in their sulphurous canopy. 

Soft stillness and the night 
Become the touches of sweet harmony. 

John or William is coming. Either the coachman or the footman is 
waiting. Neither the boy nor the girl ha>s returned. Neither horse nor 
hound is weary. 

b. Bead again Par, 203, and give the Number and Person of 
the Verbs printed in italics. 

The man who was here is gone. The men who were here are gone. He 
that gives thee a bone would not have thee die. The roses soon withered 
ihat hung o*er the wave. It is I who am speaking. It was you who spoke. 



Review. 

313. ' A Verb is a word by means of which we can say 
something concerning some person or thing.' — Mason. 

314. Verbs are either Transitive or Intransitive. 

A Transitive Verb shows that the action is directed to some 

object. 

An Intransitive Verb shows a state or condition, or an action 
which is not directed to an object. 

315. Transitive Verbs have two Voices, the Active and the 
Passive. 



I50 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



When the name of the doer of the action is ihe^ Subject of the 
Verb, the Verb is of the Active Voice. 
An Active Verb always has an Object. 

When the name of the object of the action is the Subject of 
the Verb, the Verb is of the Passive Voice. 

316. Verbs have four Moods, the Indicative, the Imperative, 
the Subjunctive, and the Infinitive. 

The Indicative Mood is used in making a simple statement, 
or in asking a question. 

The Imperative Mood is used in commanding or entreating. 

The Subjunctive Mood is used when we are speaking, not of 
a fjBu^t or of what is assumed to be a fact, but of something 
which is only thought of. 

The Infinitive Mood is the form of the Verb which is used 
without any Subject. 

317. Verbs have two Participles, the Imperfect and the 
Perfect. 

The Imperfect Participle is formed by adding -ing to the 
Verb. 

The Perfect Participle generally ends in n, t, or d. 

318. A Gerund is a Verbal Noun. 

It is the same in form as the Imperfect Participle, but it is quite 
different in origin. 

319. Verbs have three Tenses, the Present, the Past, and the 
Future. 

Verbs in each Tense may be — 

Indefinite, 
Imperfect, 
Perfect, or 
Perfect Continuous. 

320. Verbs are Strong or Weak. 

Strong Verbs form their Past Tense and Perfect Participle 
by a change of vowel. 



REVIEW OF VERBS 



'SI 



Weak Verbs form their Past Tense and Perfect Participle 
by adding -ed or -t, 

321. Verbs agree with their Subject in Person and Number. 



Examples of the Parsing of Verbs. 

The child is going to school. 

Is going Verb ; Strong ; Intransitive ; Indicative Mood ; Present Im- 
perfect Tense ; Third Person, Singular Number, agreeing 
with its Subject child. 

The hunters Jcilled a Hon, 

Killed Verb; Weak; Transitive; Active Voice; Indicative Mood ; 
Past Indefinite Tense; Third Person, Plural Number, 
agreeing with its Subject hunters, 

I can hear you. 

Can Defective Verb; Transitive; Active Voice; Indicative 

Mood ; Present Indefinite Tense ; First Person, Singular 
Number, agreeing with its Subject L 

Hear Verb ; Weak ; Transitive ; Active Voice ; Infinitive Mood ; 
Indefinite Tense. 

The com ripened by the smiling sun was cut down, 

Bipened Perfect Participle of the Verb ripeuy qualifying the Noun 

com. 
smiling Imperfect Participle of the Verb smile, used as an Adjective 

qualifying the Noun sun, 
was cut Verb ; Weak ; Transitive ; Passive Voice ; Indicative Mood ; 

Past Indefinite Tense ; Third Person, Singular Number, 

agreeing with its Subject com. 



Exercise 153. 
Parse each Verb, 

I could not love you, dear, so much. 
Loved I not honor more. 



Scepter and crown 
Must tumble doTiTi. 



152 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Fair daffodils, we weep to see 
You haste away so soon. 

Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints, whose bones 
Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold. 

A farmer had several sons who used to quarrel with one another. He 
tried to cure them of this bad habit by pointing out how foolish and 
wicked it was, but he found that he did no good by talking to them. So 
one day he laid a bundle of sticks before them and he bade them break it. 
The eldest put out all his strength, but in vain. The other sons tried in 
turn, but they all failed. Then the father, untying the bundle, gave his sons 
the separate sticks to break, and they broke them easily. ' Bemember,* he 
said, *■ the lesson which this bundle teaches. While you help each other 
none can harm you ; when you quarrel you are easily hurt,* 



ADVERBS. 



322. Adverbs are generally classified, not according to the way 
in which they are used in sentences, but according to the mean- 
ings of the words. 

Adverbs which show when are called Adverbs of Time. 

Exercise 154. 

"Pick out the Adverbs of Time in Exercise 47. 

323. Adverbs which show where are called Adverbs of 

Place. 

Exercise 155. 

Pick out the Adverbs of Place in Exercise 48. 

324. Adverbs which show how are called Adverbs of Manner. 

Exercise 156. 

Pick out the Adverbs of Manner in Exercise 49. 

325. Adverbs which show how much or how many times are 
called Adverbs of Degree or Bepetition. 

J%0 (as in * The more the merrier *) belongs to this class. 



ADVERBS 153 



Exercise 157. 

"Piok out the Adverbs of Degree or Bejpetition in Exercise 61. 

326. Adverbs which show how far the speaker believes what 
the Verb tells are called Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation. 

If the words show beliefs they are called Adverbs of Affirmation ; 
if they show disbelief they are called Adverbs of Negation, 

Bead again Par, 68. 

Yes, yea, and ay are generally called Adoerbs of Affirmation ; no 
and nay are generally called Adverbs of Negation. 

Exercise 158 

Pick out the Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation in Exercise 60. 

327. Words Hke therefore, wherefore, hence, still, consequently^ 
why, yet, likewise, also, are called Adverbs of Cause and Conse- 
quence. 

These words should not be called Conjunctions. It is true that 
some of them appear to join sentences, but it should be remembered 
that Conjunctions are not khe only words which join sentences. Rela- 
tive Pronouns and a class of Adverbs to be spoken of shortly join 
sentences also. 

Some of the Adverbs of Cause and Consequence also belong to 
other classes ; thus : — 

Adverb of Catise and Consequence. The man had walked twenty miles ; 
hence he was tired. 

Adverb of Place. The man walked hence. 

Adverb of Catise and Consequence. Appearances are against him ; still 
I believe him. 

Adverb of Time. The children are still sleeping. 

Adverb of Cause and Consequence. The story is strange, yet it is true. 

Adverb of Time. The sun is shining yet. 

Exercise 159. 

Pick out the Adverbs of Cause and Consequence. 

He has deceived me once ; therefore I will not trust him again. 

Oh, tell me, harper, wherefore flow 
Thy wayward notes • • » 



154 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



The man wasted his fortune ; hence he is poor now. She is very ill, but 
still we hope she will recover. The horse cast a shoe, and consequently we 
lost the train. The servant does not know why the master has not oome 
home. Edward is going to tlie park ; James is going also. Her parents 
gave her all she wanted, yet she was not happy. The traveler went through 
Persia and likewise went through Arabia. He blushes; therefore he is 
guilty. 

328. There are a few words which are called Adverbs by 
some grammarians and Conjunctions by others. The most 
common of these words are : — 

(a) Where and its compounds (as, where-in, where-by, where- 

fore, &c.), when, whe^ice, why, whither, as. 

(b) After, before, while, ere, till, until, since. 

329. It is quite clear that in the sentence * He lives there,' 
there is an Adverb, for it goes with the Verb lives and shows 
where. 

It seems equally clear that in the sentence ' Where does he 
live ? ' or ' He lives where ? ' where is also an Adverb. 

330. If I say * This is the place where he lives,* we have two 
sentences, * This is the place ' and * He lives.' Where joins 
them, and therefore does the work of a Conjunction. Still, if it 
was an Adverb in the sentence * Where does he live ? ' it must 
be an Adverb here. Because it thus does the work of an Adverb 
and a Conjunction some grammarians call it a Conjunctive Adverb, 
and some an Adverbial Conjunction. 

331. If the other words in list (a) be examined in the same 
way, it will be seen that they, too, are Conjunctive Adverbs, and 
that they go with the Verbs which follow them. 

332. If I say * William came after James had left,' we have 
two sentences, ' William came * and * James had left.' After 
joins them and therefore does the work of a Conjunction. But 
after does not go with the following Verb, for James did not leave 
after William came. Hence, as after does not go with any Verb, 
Adjective, or Adverb, we simply call it a Conjunction, though, at 
first sight, it looks something like an Adverb. 

333. If the other words in list (b) be examined in the same 
waj^, it will be seen that they, too, are simply Conjunctions. 



ADVERBS 155 

834. From these remarks it follows that : — 

(1) If a word, besides joining two sentences, goes with some 
Verb, Adjective, or Adverb in the second, it is a Conjunctive 
Adverb. 

(2) If it only joins two sentences, it is a Conjunction. 

335. Examples of Conjunctive Adverbs, 
This is where my brother works. 

And wheresoever Mary went, the lamb was sure to go. 

What is the cause wherefore ye are come ? 

It shall prosper in the things whereto I sent it. 

The boy was reading when his master came up. 

The prisoner was sent back to the place whence he came. 

336. Examples of Conjunctions which, at first sight, look Uke 

Ad/verbs. 

The moon rose after the sun had set. 

The traveler set out before his friends had come up. 

It is now three months since we heard from our cousin in India* 

Come down ere my child die. 

Do not go out till the storm has abated. 

The man arrived while we were speaking of him. 

337. The word as requires care. 

In the sentence * John is not 09 tall as his brother is,* the first as is 
an Adverb of Degree joined to the Adjective tall ; the second a^ is a 
Conjunctive Adverb. 

In the sentence * I do not trust him as he has deceived me,* as 
[ = because] is a Conjunction. 

In the sentence * We met the boys as we were coming home,* as 
[ = when] is an Adverb of Time. 

Exercise 160. 

Pick out the Conjunctive Adverbs, 

1 remember, I remamber 

The house where I was bom, 
The little window where the sun 

Came peeping in sA. mom. 



156 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



I 



I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. That is the field where 
the money was found. The reason why he came is not known. The place 
whither you are traveling is far away. The workman did not hear when 
he was called. The tree is still lying where it fell. The thief will be soon 
caught, wherever he is. He goes out riding whenever he can find tima 
This is how you ought to write. The Lord preserved David whithersoever 
he went. Whithersoever it tumeth it prospereth. Look to the rock whence 
ye are hewn. Ye cannot tell whence I come and whither I go. What is the 
cause wherefore ye are come ? Wherever I went was my poor dog Tray. 

Exercise 16L 

a. Bay what Part of Speech each word printed in italics is. 

William came first; James CAme after. William came a/^ me. William 
came after I had gone. Jill came tumbling after. 

The mother knew that before. The mother knew that before Saturday, 
The mother knew that before you told her. 

My brother cannot stay till then. My brother cannot stay till Sunday. 
My brother cannot stay till you come for him. 

We ought to have heard ere now. We shall hear ere noon. We shall 
hear ere many days are gone. 

The merchant has been here since. The merchant has been here since 
Monday. The merchant has been here since you left. 

As the boy was hard-working he got on. We met the boy as he was 
going to work. The boy was as honest as he was industrious. 

b. Classify the Adverbs in Exercise 63. 

Comparison of Adverbs. 

Bead again Pars, 223-231. 

838. Some Adverbs admit of comparison ; thus: — 

Positive Degree. We expect Fred to arrive soon. 
Comparative Degree. We expect Tom to arrive sooner. 
Superlative Degree. We expect Edward to arrive soonest. 

889. Adverbs are compared like Adjectives. 

Many Adverbs are formed from Adjectives, as "kindly from "k^dy 
gently from gentle. Such Adverbs are, of course, longer than the 
Adjectives from which they were formed, and Adverbs are therefore 
compared by the addition of more and most ottener than Adjectives ara 





CONJUNCTIONS 




157 


340. Some Adverbs 


are compared irre 


gularly, as : — 


Positive. 


Compa/ratiA)e, 




Superlative, 


well 


better 




best 


evil\ 
ill / 


worse 




worst 


much 


more 




most 


late 


later 




last 


for 


farther 




farthest 


nigh \ 
near J 


nearer 




next 



Exercise 162. 

Compare the following Adverbs : — 

LazUy^ Wittily. Sadly. Snugly. Proudly, Truly. Busily. Luckily. 
Often. Seldom. Little. Far. 



OONJUNOTIONS. 

Bead again Pars. 70-72. 

341. A CoDJunction is a joining word which is neither a 
Pronoun nor an Adverb. 

Exercise 163. 

Work again Exercise 63. 

Pick out the Conjunctions in Exercise 160. 

342. The Conjunction than is used to join two sentences, but the 
greater part of the second sentence is often left out. Thus : — 

You like Mr. Jones better than I. 
You like Mr. Jones better than me. 
Fred is taller than Edward. 



First Sentence, 


Conjunction, 


Second Sentence, 


You like Mr. Jones better 
You like Mr. Jones better 
Fred is taUer 


than 
than 
than 


I [like him], 
[you like] me. 



158 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 164. 

Supply the words omitted. 

The gardener is lazier than the ploughman. Ton have known James 
longer than I. You have known James longer than me. We love our 
teacher more than he. We love our teacher more than him. A greyhound 
runs faster than a hare. Jack returned sooner than his brother. Iron is 
more useful than gold. Gold is dearer than iron. He is more rich than 
clever.* 



A FEW DIFFICULTIES. 
The Case aeter Be. 

Bepeat the parts of the Verb to be. 

343. The Verb to be ^ has the same case after it as before it ; 
as, ' I am the man.' 

J is in the Nominative Case, Subject to am ; man is therefore also 
in the Nominative Case. 

Parse * man ' as in the Nominative Case after the verb ant 

Exercise 165. 

Give the Case of the words printed in italics. 

Nathan said unto David ' Thou art the man,* Tou are a good boy. That 
is a nightingale. Doctor Faustus was a good man. Old King Cole was a 
merry old soul. The Thames is a beautiful river. I'm to be queen of the 
May. The box will be a useful present We have been friends for many 
years. I hope that I shall be a scholar some day. Art thou the traitor 
angel ? Art thou he that should come ? A man severe he was. 

ArPOSITION. 

344. Sometimes a Noun is placed after another Noun or after 
a Pronoun to show more clearly who or what is meant ; as, 
« William the Conqueror, * Brown the grocer,' * I your father.' 

» See ' Notes for Teachers,' p. 269, Note 38. 

-* It will be seen that beisA Verb of Incomplete Predication, and that what is here said 
of U applies to other Verba of Incomplete Predication. 



NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE 159 

The Noun so placed is said to be in Apposition to the other 
Noun or to the Pronoun. 

345. Nouns or Pronouns in Apposition have the same Case ; 
as, * Hob the 'ploughman is returning ; ' * I met Hob the plotcgh- 
man,' 

In the first sentence Hoh is in the Nominative Case, Subject to is 
returning, and ploughman is therefore in the Nominative Case also. 

In the second sentence Hob is in the Objective Case governed by 
the Verb met, and ploughman is also in the Objective Case. 

Parse it as in the Objective Case in Apposition to Hob. 

Exercise 166. 

Pick out the Nouns in Apposition and give the Case of each, 

Paul the Apostle was a Jew. Napoleon the Emperor was sent to St. 
Helena. I live in London, the capital of England. This coat was made by 
Harrison, the tailor. The children love their uncle, Mr. Holmes. William 
the Conqueror came from Normandy. It was the lark, the herald of the 
morn. Tom, Tom, the piper's son, stole a pig. The hunters killed Bruin 
the bear. Highest queen of state, great Juno comes. This is Sullivan, the 
blacksmith's, shop. Frank, the jockey's, leg is broken. 

This gentleman, the prince's near ally, 
My very friend, hath got his mortal hurt. 

But He, our gracious Master, kind as just, 
Knowing our frame, remembers we are dust. 

Nominative Absolute. 

346. A Noun (or Pronoun) is said to be in the Nominatiye 
Absolute when (being followed by a Participle expressed or 
understood) its Case is not affected by any other word in the 
sentence ; as, * The sea being calm, we went for a sail ;' ^ He being 
tired, we sat down ; * ' The mountains rose, peak above peak 
(that is, * peak being above peak '). 

Exercise 167. 

Pick out the Nominative Absolute. 

Everything being ready, we started. Napoleon having been defeated^ 
there was peace. The storm having abated^ \.\i<^ ^^cc^^;^ ^^^otejcwk^ \» ^«^ 



l6o LOXGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

James leaving the country, William was made king. The baby lying asleep, 
the children were very quiet. Bruce lay down, his heart heavy with 
sorrow. The soldiers charged, sword in hand. The man listened, his face 
red with anger. The king returning victorious, the citizens went forth to 
meet him. 

But ihe lark is so brimful of gladness and love. 
The green fields below him, the blue sky above . . . 

Nominative of Address. 

647. When a person (or thing) is called by name, the name is 
said to be in the Nominatiye of Address ; as, * (Tome to me, Q ye 
children.^ * grave, where is thy sting ? ' \ . 

The Nominative of Address in English corresponds to the Vocative 
in Greek or Latin. 

A Noun which is in the Nominative of Address is in the Second 
Person ; as * Our father , which art in heaven.' 

Art is in the Second Person, therefore which is ; and if which is, father, 
the Antecedent, must be also. 

Exercise 168. 

Pick out tJie Nouns and Pronouns which are in the Nomina- 
tive of Address. 

O Borneo, wherefore art thou Romeo ? In truth, fair Montague, I am 
too fond. grave, where is thy victory ? I pray you, sire, to let me have 
the honor. O nischt ami darkness, ye are wondrous strong. Exult, ye 
proud patricians. Put on thy strength, O ZioD. 

Home of the mighty ! can it be 
That this is all remains of thee ? 

To arms ! to arms I Sir Consul, 
Lars Porsena is here. 

O Tiber ! father Tiber, 

To whom the Romans pray . . • • 

Nouns of Time, Space, and Measurement. 

348. Nouns of time, space, and measurement are in the 
Objective Case without any Verb or Preposition ; as, * We lived 
tenymrs in France ; ' * Tom walked twenty miies ; ' * The doth 
measures six yards. ' 



WORDS * UNDERSTOOD' i6i 

Exercise 169. 

Pick out the Nouns of Time, Space, or Measurement, and 
give the Case of each. 

The hare was caught after running a mile. My friend stayed three 
weeks. The old man lived ninety years. The field measures fifty acres. 
The snail crawled a yard an hour. The lawyers smiled that afternoon. 
We waited a whole day. Seven days, seven nights I saw the curse. The 
potatoes weigh a ton. The soldier went away a week ago. The man sprang 
hack two or three paces. The horse is worth a hundred dollars ; the cow 
is worth thirty dollars. 

The wretched parents all that night 

Went shouting far and wide. 

Words ^ Understood/ 

349. Before parsing or analyzing a sentence it is necessary 
to put in all words which are omitted (or * understood '). 

As a rule there is no need to parse words which are understood, 
but till they are inserted the construction of the sentence cannot be 
seen. 

Work again Exercises 108 and 164. 

350. Compare the sentences in the first column with those 
in the second. 



Sentences vrith words wnderstood. 

He came on Monday and left 
on Tuesday. 

Joseph came in and looked 
upon them. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brown are a 
kind gentleman and lady. 

I like reading and writing. 

We are going to France and 
Italy. 



Sentences in full. 



He came on Monday and [he] 
left on Tuesday. 

Joseph came in and [Joseph 
or he] looked upon them. 

Mr. [Brown] and Mrs. Brown 
are a kind gentleman and [a kind] 
lady.> 

I like reading and [I like] 
writing. 

We are going to France and 
[to] Italy.' 



We know he is truthful. We know [that] he is truthful. 

* Or^ Mr. Brown is a kind gentleman and Mrs. Brown is a kin.dlAil^« 

* Or, We are going to France and 'we «xe ^Vxi%\a\\a2li. 



l63 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Sentences with words understood. 
John arrived, but Tom did not. 

I will pull down my bams and 
build larger. 
Go. 
Come. 
This house is my uncle*s. 

Fred is staying at his cousin's. 

This is St. Peter's. 

The boy is as old as the girl. 

The teacher is as clever as 
kind. 

She loves him as well as I. 

She loves him as well as me. 

I am younger than he. 

James is better than John. 



Sentences in full. 



John arrived, but Tom did not 
[arrive]. 

I will pull down my bams and 
build larger [barns]. 

Go [thou or go ye]. 

Come [thou or ye]. 

This house is my uncle's 
[house]. 

Fred is staying at his cousin's 
[house or home]. 

This is St. Peter's [church]. 

The boy is as old as the girl 
[is old]. 

The teacher is as clever as [he 
is] kind. 

She loves him as weU as I 
[love him]. 

She loves him as well as [she 
loves] me. 

I am younger than he [is 
young]. 

James is better than John [is 
good]. 



Exercise 170. 

Supply the words understood. 

Come live with me and be my love. Awake, arise, or be for ever fallen. 
(Tbey your parents. We left London on Monday and reached Gibraltar on 
Wednesday. Coal is found in Pennsylvania. Horses and hounds are run 
ning fast. This is the book you lost. Where is the house you mean ? 1 
hate meanness and deceit. 

He guided her trembling feet along. 
Proud that his own were firm and strong. 

When he hoisted his standard black 

Before him was battle, behind him wrack [= ruin, destmction], 

Down in a green and shady bed 
A modest violet grew. 

And yet it was a lovely flower, 
Its colors bright and tavr. 



ORDER 163 



But green leaves and blossoms and sunny warm weather 
And singing and loving all come back together. 

The lark is so brimful of gladness and love .... 

Eggs are really good for nothing ; 
What's an egg to me or you ? 

We rose in the dark 
And got with our bags and our brushes to work. 

Be still a dream throughout the day, 
A blessing through the night. 

But all I hear 

Is the north wind drear 

And all I see are the waves. 

She once was blooming and young and fair, 

With bright blue eyes and auburn hair. 

( 
All seemeth as calm as an infant's dream. 

Ever its torn folds rose and fell 

On the loyal winds that loved it well. 

Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note. 

Order. 

351. Before parsing or analyzing a sentence see that the 
words are in the usual order. 

Bead again "Par, 43 h, and in Exercise 41 pick out the 
Adjectives which are placed after Nouns. 

Bead again Pars, 149 and 150, and work again Exercise 97. 

352. Compare the sentences in the first column with those in 
the second. 



Inverted order. 



Great is the Lord and of great 
power. 

Cold is Cadwallo's tongue. 

Great is Diana of the Ephe- 
sians. 

In the beginning was the 
Word. 

So persecuted they the pro- 
phets. 



Usual order. 



The Lord is great and [He is] 
of great power. 

Cadwallo's tongue is cold. 

Diana of the Ephesians is 
great. 

The Word was in the begin- 
ning. 

They persecuted ^^ ^<s^^^«. 
\ ^» 



1 64 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Inverted order. 



Comes a rapor from the mar- 
gin blackening over heath and 

holt. 

Then burst his mighty heart. 

Whom ye ignorantly worship, 
Him declare I unto you. 

Mine head with oil thou didst 
not anoint. 
From peak to peak, the rattling 

crags among, 
Leaps the Uve thunder. 



Ustuil order. 



A vapor, blackening over heath 
and holt, comes from the margin. 

His mighty heart burst then. 

I declare unto you Him whom 
ye worship ignorantly. 

Thou didst not anoint mine 
head with oil. 

The live thunder leaps from 
peak to peak among the rattling 
crags. 



Exercise 171. 

Arrange in the usual order the words of the following 
sentences. 

a. Great is your reward in Heaven. 
Justice and truth are Thy ways. 

To confirm his words out fly 
Millions of flaming swords. 

Great and marvellous are Thy works. 
Of his early Ufe few particulars have reached us. 
Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield. 
In my Father's house are many mansions. 
Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. 
Uprose the King of men with speed. 
Flashed all their sabres bare. 
Some pious drops the closing eye requires. 

Down the street with laughter and shout, 
Glad in the freedom of school let out 
Gome the boys. 

And the heavy night hung dark 
The hills and waters o'er. 

b. Wide is the gate and broad is the way. 
Whatever wisdom and energy could do William did. 
Then shrieked the timid and stood still the brave. 
Not as the world giveth give I unto you. 

Me he restored unto mine office and him he hanged. 
For ibia did Servias give us laws ? for this did Lucrece bleed ? 



I 



ORDER 165 

Of old sat Freedom on the heights .... 
Above her shook the starry lights. 

Gone are all the barons bold, 
Gone are all the knights and squires, 

Gone the abbot stem and cold, 
And the brotherhood of friars. 

353. The Adverb tlfiere is used before the Verb to be, so that 
the Subject may come after the Verb ; as, ' There is a God * 
[=A God is] ; * There was a man ' [=A man was].^ 

364. There is similarly used with some other Verbs, such as 
come, appear, seem, live, dwell, exist ; as, * There came a mes- 
senger unto the king ; * * There appears to be no truth in the 
story ; ' * There seemed to be a whole army ; * * Once upon a time 
there lived three brothers. . . .* 

355. There so used is not now an Adverb of Place. * There lived 
a man ' is quite different in meaning from * A man Uved there.' In 
the second sentence there is an Adverb of Place ; in the first it is a 
Preparatory Adverb,^ There is the same difference between the two 
therea in the following lines : — 

There is in the wide lone sea 

A spot unmarked but holy, 
For there the gallant and the free 

In his ocean bed lies lowly. 

Exercise 172. 

Eea/rrange the following sentences omitting the Preparatory 
Adverb there. 

There was once a good king. There came a voice from heaven. There 
was not a tree to be seen. There was a crooked man. There seems no end 
to his tricks. There came a man of God to Eli. There came a lion and a 
bear. Behold there appeared a chariot of fire. There appeared to them 
Moses and Elias. There stood proud forms around his throne. There's a 
merry brown thrush sitting up in a tree. 

There lived a miller hale and bold 
Beside the Biver Dee. 

* So lar a0 order goes the French usage is parallel—// y avaU tm homme* 

* Pr. Abbott's same tox VX*. 



i66 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

There was an old woman tossed up in a basket 
Ninety times as high as the moon. 

Woe to the reahns which he wasted, for there 
There was shedding of blood and rending of hair. 

BUT. 

366. The word hut * may be 

(1) A Conjunction ; as, 

The horse is sold, hut the cow is not. 
I want oranges hut not lemons. 

(2) A Pre posit ion ; as. 

All went but [ = except] me. 

We want none but [ = except] him. 

(8) An Adverb ; as, 

Man wants but [ = only] little here below. 
The story is but [ = only] too true. 

Exercise 173. 
Farze each but. 

All the boys but Tom were early. We are but children of a larger 
growth. One shall be taken, but the other left. It is but too true. They 
were poor but honest. You have come but to mock me. He is rich, but 
not happy. 

So the loud whirlwind and the torrent's roar 
But bind him to his native mountains more. 

O who shall say what heroes feel 
When all but life and honor's lost ? 

TBAT^ 

367. Tfea^maybe 

(1) A Demonstrative Adjective ; as, 
Give me that book. 

(2) A Demonstrative Pronoun ; as. 

This gives me joy, that [gives me] sorrow. 

* j3ce * Notes for Teacliera; p. ^ib^,'^o\A ^^ 



PARSING 



167 



(3) A Eelative Pronoun ; as, 
This is the house fhat Jack built. 

(3) A Conjunction ; as, 

I know thai you are unhappy. 



"Parse each that. 



Exercise 174. 



Work that you may succeed. Have you seen the house that I bought ? 
It is true that our sister came yesterday. Do you know that child ? Is that 
that you told me true ? Do you believe that story ? I believe that the story 
that you heard is false. Nay, that's certain ; we are blest that Borne is rid 
of him. 



Miscellaneous Sentences for Parsing. 

[When parsing in writing, time may be saved by contracting the longer gram- 
matical terms, thus : — 



^o"""- Ir 



Com. 
Prop 
Abs. 
Coll. 



Sing. ^^ 
Plur ^^"^^ 



■\ 



Masc. 
Fern. 
Neut. 
Com. 



Qual. \ 
Adjectives (Adj.) Quant [■ 

Demons.) 

Pers 
Reflex. 
Rel. 
Pronocns (Pron.J Interr. 

Demons. 
Indef. 
Distrib. 



Pos. \ 
Comp. [ Deg. 
Super, i 



Nom. \ 
P08S. 
Gend. Obj. j-Case. 
Absol. I 
Appos.; 



Verbs. 



Trans. 
Intrans 



.} p1} Voice. 



Indie. \ 
Imper. 
Subj. 
Infin. ^ 



Pres. 

Fut 

^Mood. F;;!;rf. [Tense. 

Indef. 
Contin./ 






Part K Participle. 



Man. \ 

Affirm. 

Neg. I 

J. r 



Adverbs (Adv.) Conj 

Deg. 
Repet 

Prepositions (Prep.) 



Deg. 



i68 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Conjunctions (Conj.) 
Interjections (Inteij.) 
Never contract a word of one syllable. 

Show that a word is contracted bj patting a fall stop after it ; ponctoate in 
other respects as if there were no contractions.] 

England expects every man to do his duty. 

Time writes no wrinkles on thine azore brow. 

His house was known to all the vagrant train. 

No useless coffin enclosed his breast. 

I saw a little streamlet flow 
Along a peaceful vale. 

On some fond breast the parting soul relies. 
The mild southern breeze brought a shower from the hilL 
The poor live pleasantly without our help. 

The castle's bound 
I wander round, 
Amidst the grassy graves. 

Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower. 

The spirit of your fathers 
Shall start from every wave. 

Two robin redbreasts built their nest 
Within a hollow tree. 

Here to the houseless child of want 
My door is open still. 

Down in a green and shady bed 
A modest violet grew. 

The freshening breeze of eve unfurled that banner's massive fold. 

Night sank upon the dusky beach and on the purple sea. 

I climbed the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn. 

Some years ago, a friend into my care 
Some jewels gave. 

The signal to engage shall be 
A whistle and a hollo. 

For the rights of fair England that broad sword he draws. 

I see the lightb of the village 

Gieam through the rain and the mist. 



PARSING 169 



The turban folded about his head 

Was daintily wrought of the palm-leaf braid. 

A barge across Loch Katrine flew, 
High stood the henchman on the prow. 

And lo ! from the assembled crowd 
There rose a shout, prolonged and loud. 

The stranger came with iron hand 
And from our fathers reft the land. 

And at the sound it sunk in haste awaj 
And vanished from our sight. 

Then my heart with pleasure fills 
And dances with the daffodils. 

His sword was in its sheath, 
His fingers held the pen. 

Her timbers yet are sound 
And she may float again. 

My father lived beside the Tyne, 
A wealthy lord was he. 

I am sorry for thee ; thou art come 
To answer a stony adversary. 

And by came an angel who had a bright key. 

Though your duty may be hard, 

Look not on it as an ill ; 
If it be an honest task. 

Do it with an honest will. 

The tall pink foxglove bowed his head; 
The violets curtsied and went to bed. 

When the ground is white with snow. 
At the door some crumbs I'll throw. 

With a merry face and a merry song 
Through the snow he paddles along. 

And to the hilt his vengeful sword 
He plunged in Gtelert's side. 

Past the woman so old and gray, 
Hurry the children oii \»\ie\t ^^^% 



170 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Lightly and brightly breaks away 
The morning from her mantle gray. 

Beneath the crimson arching dome, 
Went up the roar of mortal foes. 

Happy must be the state 

Whose ruler heedeth more 
The murmurs of the poor 

Than flatteries of the great. 

Sing the glorious day's renown, 
When to battle fierce came forth 
All the might of Denmark's crown. 

The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. 

No peace, no comfort could I find. 
No ease within doors or without. 

Underneath this sable hearse 
Lies the subject of all verse. 

And by him sported on the green, 
His little grandchild, Wilhelmine. 

Honor thy father and thy mother .... that it [call it an Impersonal 
Pronoun] may be well with thee, and that thou mayest live long on the 
earth. 

Were half the power that fills the world with terror, 

Were half the wealth bestowed on camps and courts 

Given to redeem the human mind from error. 

There were no need of arsenals or forts. 

Bozzaris I with the storied brave 
Greece nurtured in her glory's prime 
Best thee. 

' ! haste thee, haste ! * the lady cries ; 

* Though tempests round us gather, 
1*11 meet the raging of the skies, 
But not an angry father.* 



171 



PART III. 

ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 

SIMPLE SENTENCES. 
Subject and Predicate. 

Bead again Pars. 115 to 123, and work again Exercises 82 
to 86. 

Exercise 175. 

Analyze the following sentences. 

John is working. He is working. To work tires. Working tires. 
Birds fly. They fly. To read interests. Beading interests. The blind 
should be helped. The good are loved. 

358. If the sentences given in Exercise 175 be examined, it 
will be seen that the Subject may be 

(1) A Noun * ; as, * John is working.' 

(2) A Pronoun ; as, * He is working.* 
(8) An Infinitive ; as, * To work tires.* 

(4) A Gerund ; as, * Working tires.* 

(5) An Adjective used as a Noun ; as, ' The blind should be 

helped.' 

Exercise 176. 

Say of what the Subject consists. [The Subject is printed in 
italics.] 

John is going to Scotland ; he will stay there a month. Traveling is 
interesting. To read is easy ; to think is not so easy. Blessed are th£ meek, 

* It will be seen when Complex Sentences are taken that the 8\ib\»^\>\&aKj ^^si^ ^^iKsoEdt^^ o^ 
a Noun Cluuae. 



172 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Blessed are the merciful. Writing is asefol. We are expecting our aunt ; 
she is coming from France. France is a large country. Beading maketh 
a full man. To wait is tiresome. 



The Predicate. 

359. A Verb is said to be Finite when it is in the Indicative, 
Subjunctive, or Imperative Mood. 

Participles and Verbs in the Infinitive Mood are therefore not 
Finite Verbs. 

360. The Predicate contains or consists of a Finite Verb. 

36L Some Verbs do not convey a complete idea, and there- 
fore cannot be Predicates by themselves. Such Verbs are called 
Verbs of Incomplete Predication, and the words added to com- 
plete the Predicate are called the Complement.^ 

Examples of Verbs of Incomplete Predication. 



Subject. 




Predicate. 


• 


Verb of Incomplete 
Predication. 


Complement. 


London 


is 




a city. 


Wellington 


was 




a great general. 


The man 


became 




rich. 


The day 


grew 




dark. 


Hoses 


smell 




sweet. 


John 


remained 




silent. 


She 


seemed 




kind. 


Bambo 


appeared 




gratefiil. 


We 


feel 




happy. 


The dog 


went 




mad. 


David 


was made 




king. 


The child 


was named 




Edward. 



J 



When analyzing in tabular form a sentence containing a Verb of 
Incomplete Predication, have two colmnns as above, or have one column 
headed Predicate, and show the Predicate thus : — 

is (F.J. P.) « 
a city (Comp,) ' 

* From the Latin comptemerUumy that which fills up or completes ; from con^kre^ to iXL 
complete. 

V. I. P. = Verb ot Incomplete Predication. 
Oomp, a CJomplement, 



THE PREDICATE 173 



362. Great care must be taken to distinguish between an Adjective 

which is the Complement of a Verb and an Adverb which qualifies a 

Verb. Thus :— 

The child smiles sweetly. 

The child smells sweet. 

In the first sentence sweetly is an Adverb, because it shows how the 

child smiles ; in the second sentence sweet does not tell the way in which . 

the child does anything, and is a Complement. 

Similarly, 

The dog went mad. 

The dog went madly down the street. 

In the first sentence, mad does not tell how the dog did anything ; 
in the second, madly does. Mad is therefore a Complement, and 
m>adly an Adverb. 

Again, mahe is used in an entirely different way in the two sent- 
ences, 

Bakers make bread. 

Sweet buds make pretty flowers. 
Bread is an Object; tijid pretty flowers a Complement. 

Similarly, in 

That dress became her. 

He became an artist. 
Iter is an Object, and an artist is a Complement. 

363. The Verb to be is always a Verb of Incomplete I^redica- 
tion except when it means to exist, as it does in the following 
sentences : — 

Nothing is but what is not. 
Whatever is is right. 
But the hour cometh and now is. 
He that cometh to God must beheve that He is, 
Grace be unto you and peace from Him which is, and waSf and 
is to come. 

364. The Complement to the Verb to be may be 

(1) A Noun ; as, * Thou art the man,* 

(2) A Pronoun ; as, * I am /le.' 

(8) An Adjective ; as, ' It is good„* 



174 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



(4) An Adverb ; as, * I am Inere: 

(6) An Infinitive ; as, * The house is to he sold.* 

(6) A Phrase ; as. 

The horse is in the stable. 
The driver is ready to start. 
The gun was behind the door, 

365. Besides the Verb to be the most common Verbs of 
Incomplete Predication are become^ grow, seem, appear, make, 
call, think, deem, look, feel, smell. 

Bead again Par, 343. 

366. Bemember that all Verbs of Incomplete Predication take the 
same Case after as before them. 

Exercise 177. 

Pick out the Verbs of Incomplete Predication and say what is 
the Complement of each. 

When the Complement is a Noun or Pronoun say what is its 
Case. 

a. Jackson is our gardener. Tou are she. That is he. These buds will be 
pretty flowers. John Gilpin was a citizen. The boys are at school. Our 
cousins are here. Old King Cole was a merry old soul. I'm the chief of 
Ulva's isle. 

Additional sentences : — Exercise 14, a, 

b. William became king. The child grows pretty. The girls seem 
happy. The flowers appear dead. Good boys make good men. This town 
is called Kingston. The general was made emperor. The paint looks fresh. 
We feel tired. The flower smells sweet. The water tastes warm. The very 
houses seem asleep. That man is considered a miser. Solomon was deemed 
wise. The man is thought honest. The baby has been named Maud. Man 
became a living soul. The temptation proved irresistible. Louis was styled 
the father of his people. Some men are born great. 

Now is the winter of our discontent 
Made glorious summer. 




THE OBJECT 175 



The Object. 

Bead again Pars, 129-181, and work again Exercise 89. 

367. When the Predicate is a Verb in the Active Voice it has 
an Object. 

368. Like the Subject, the Object may be 

(1) A Noun * ; as, * Bakers make bread,' 

(2) A Pronoun ; as, * We love him,' 

(3) An Infinitive ; as, * I hke to read,' 

(4) A Gerund ; as, * I like reading,' 

(6) An Adjective used as a Noun ; as, * You should pity the 
poor. 

Exercise 178. 

Pick out the Object and say of what it consists. 

The cook made a pie. Tom broke the window. The gardener sowed 
seeds. Some one stole the horse. Artists paint pictures. The sailor lost 
his ship. Children learn lessons. Authors write books. Farmers grow 
corn. Birds build nests. I heard her. We have just met him. Mr. Smith 
will meet us. We like them. I hurt myself. She cut herself. They are 
dressing themselves. The child is learning to read. He tries to succeed. 
We hope to pass. She studies painting. He teaches drawing. We had 
begun to dance. They intend to write. She helps the poor. We love the 
meek. Comfort the miserable. 

Additional sentences : — Exercise 16, a. 

Enlarged Subject. 

Bead again Par, 124. 

369. The Subject may be enlarged by 

(1) An Adjective ^ ; as. 

The birds built a nest. 
Those birds built nests. 
Twenty birds built nests. 

* It will be seen when Complex Sentences are taken that the Object may also oonsiEf 
of a Noun Clatue. 

* Also an Adjective Clause, See Pars. 39^9. 



176 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 




(2) A Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case ; as, 

My father is a fiajrmer. 
WUliam^s brother is a captain. 

(3) A Noun in Apposition ; as, ' George the gamekeeper shot 

a hare.' 

(4) A Participle or a Participial Phrase ; as, 

The king being defeated desired peace. 
The victor, having brought hia enemies to submit, ended 
the wcur. 

(6) A Prepositional Phrase ; as, * The Tower of London is 

ancient.* 
(6) An Infinitive Phrase ; as, ' A wish to please is the root of 

poUteness. 

370. When the Subject is an Infinitive or a Gerund, it may 
be enlarged by 

(1) An Object; as, 

To read good books is instructive. 
Loving our friends is easj. 

'2) A Prepositional or other phrase ; as. 

To read in a bad light is fooUsh. 
Walking here in the fields is pleasant. 

Exercise 179. 

Pick out the Enlargements or Adjuncts of the Subject and 
say what they are. 

The old man is tired. My name is Norval. A little ship was on the 
sea. Peters the baker makes bread. Bobinson the tailor sells cloths. 
Tom*s father was Dick's son. Her uncle is in India. The ship being strong 
withstood the storm. The woman being in great trouble was weeping. The 
house on the hill is Mr. Bosworth's. The lady on horseback is Mrs. Bos- 
worth. Teaching lazy children is hard work. Learning to row is pleasant, 
fearing the storm, we returned. The path of duty is the way to glory. 
'wmy turf beneath their feet shall be a Boldier'a sepulchre. 



subject and object 177 

Enlarged Object. 

Bead again Para. 182, 369, and 370. 

371. Whatever may be an enlargement or Adjunct of the 
Subject may also be an enlargement of the Object. 

Exercise 180. 

Pick out the Enlargements or Adjuncts of the Object and say 
what they are. 

We have sold the horse. I bought twenty sheep. The girl lost her 
gloves. Who found Thomas's top ? The curfew tolls the knell of parting 
day. No glorious sun shall gild thy day. I wield the flail of the lashing 
hail. I bring fresh showers for thirsty flowers. I widen the rent in my 
wind-buUt tent. We met our cousin the architect. We admire Hereward 
the Wake. I climbed the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn. We learn 
to paint pictures. I like reading interesting books. The midnight brought 
the signal-sound of strife. 

Subject and Object. 

Exercise 181. 

Analyze the following sentences. [For model see Exercise 90.] 

Something attempted, something done 
Has earned a night's repose. 

Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 

He has exalted them of low degree. 

An unwonted spleudor brightened 
All within him and without him. 

Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear. 

None but the brave deserve the fair. 

The sun with ruddy orb 
Ascending Alls the horizon. 

No stores beneath its humble thatch 
Required a ms^Btet'^ c»x«. 



178 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

His rising cares the hermit spied 
With answering care oppressed. 

The modest wants of every day 
The toil of every day supplied. 

The pavement damp and cold 
No smiling courtiers tread. 

Enlarged Predicate. 

B,ead again Pars, 125, 126. 

372. The Predicate may be enlarged by 

(1) An Adverb ^ as, * He writes badly.* 

(2) A Prepositional Phrase ; as, * He writes on paper.^ 

(3) A Phrase with the Nominative Absolute ^ ; as, * Winter 

being over, the swallows returned.* 

(4) An Objective of Time, Space, or Measurement ^ ; as, * We 

rode ten miles,' 

Exercise 182. 

Pick out the Enlargements of the Predicate and say what 
they are. 

The battle won, the victors pitched their tents upon the field. The gate 
being left open, the cattle strayed. We Uved at Hastings ten months. The 
Boldiers marched thirty miles in one day. 

Additional sentences : — Exercise 87. 

373. As the Enlargements or Adjuncts of the Predicate are 
either Adverbs or words which do the work of Adverbs, they can 
be divided into classes as Adverbs can. 

The Enlargements or Adjuncts of the Predicate may show 

(1) Time ; as, 

He will return soon. 

The child was bom in the yea/r 1880. 

(2) Place ; as. 

The man fell here. 

We bought these books in Paris. 

^^ '' Also by an Adverbial Olanae, * Bee Pat. U^ * ^qa ¥«r « HiL 



ENLARGED PREDICATE 



179 



/ 



(8) Manner ; as, 

You acted wisely. 

The boy ran like the toind. 

He lit the candle tvith a match, 

(4) Cause ; as, 

I went to the station to meet my sister. 
The child cried with fatigvs. 

374. Some Adjuncts of the Predicate are difficult to classify. 

375. In analyzing a sentence which contains Adjuncts of the 
Predicate, say, as far as possible, of what kind they are ; thus — 

Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife. 
Their sober wishes never learned to stray. 



Subject. 


Adjuncts 

of the 

Subject. 


Predicate, 


Object. 


Adjuncts 
of the 
Object. 


Wishes 


their 
sober 


learned 


to stray 





Exercise 183. 



Adjuncts of the Pre^ 
dicate. 



far from the madding 
crowd's ignoble strife 
(nominative absolute 
phrase of cause = [they 
being] far from, etc. ) 

never ( Time) 



Classify the Adjuncts of the Predicate, 

a. The swallows returned this week. We were up before sunrise. His 
mercy endureth for ever. We lost our dog one afternoon last month. I 
cannot stay till then. The storm being over, we ventured out. 

b. They met their friends in Edinburgh. We shall wait for them here 
at the garden gate. We rowed from Kingston to Oxford. This umbrella 
was bought in Begent Street. 

c. The boy read carefully. You acted like a baby. The Assyrian came 
down like a wolf on the fold. We sent the letter by a special messenger. 
The regiment charged with the bayonet. 

d. We study to learn. We eat to live. We do not live to eat. The 
poor man could not speak for joy. His father being dead, he returned to 
England. He worked hard to win the prize. 

The spirit of your fathers 
Shall start from every wave. 

All day long through Frederick Street 
Sounded the tread ol mtixc^vcvai^^V 



e. 



l8o 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Bright the lamps shone o*er fair women and brave men. 

[And] through the window-panes on floor and panel 
Streamed the red autumn sun. 

Meanwhile, without, the surly cannon waited. 

Under the walls of Monterey 

At daybreak the bugles began to play. 

From floor to ceiling 
Like a huge organ rise the burnished arms. 

Meanwhile, from street and lane, a noisy crowd 
Had rolled together, like a sunmier cloud. 



Active Verbs of Incomplete Predication. 

376. When a Verb of Licomplete Predication is in the Active 
Voice, it takes an Object as well as a Complement ; thus — 



S&ntcnce, 



We deem him honest 
They crowned William 

king 
His parents called the 

child Edward 



SulfjecL 


Predicate, 




Verb of 
Incomplete 
Predication, 


Comple- 
ment, 


Object of 
Verb, 


We 
They 

His parents 


deem 
crowned 

called 


honest 
king 

Edward 


him 
William 

the child 



Exercise 184. 

Pick out the Complement and the Object of each Verb of In- 
complete Predication, 

Many people thought Arthur the rightful king. I do not think him 

clever. The jury found the prisoner guilty. Her beauty made me glad. 

Everybody deemed him an impostor. The tenants considered Mr. Sidney 

Iheir landlord. His conduct made us angry. His wife believed him innocent 

Tbejr proclaimed William emperor. The father named his son Francis. 



INDIRECT OBJECT i8i 



377. The same Verb may have an Object in one sentence and 
a Complement in another ; thus — 



Object, 



The coat became ( - suited) him 
The lady is smeUing the flower 



Complement, 



The wool became a coat 
The flower is smelling sweet 



Exercise 185. 

a. Say whether the words printed in italics are Objects or 
Complements. 

Hhe man felt hurt The man felt his head. The gardener grows apples. 
The gardener grows old. The preacher continued his sermon. The preacher 
continued popular. The host tasted the wine. The wine tasted sour. 
Tailors make clothes. It is sometimes said that clothes make the man. 
We called him. We called him a cheat. 

b. Say tvhether the words printed in italics are Complements 
of the Verb or Adjuncts of the Predicate. 

The child looked tired. The child looked behind the door. We feel 
warmly on the matter. We feel warm. The dog went mad. The dog went 
m>adly down the street. The lady appeared faint. The sun appears in the 
morning. 

Indirect Object. 

878. Many Transitive Verbs express an action which, besides 
the object acted on directly, concerns another person or thing 
that may be said to be acted on indirectly ; as * Alfred lent Fred 
a knife.' 

Here the action of lending acts directly on the knife and indirectly 
on Fred. 

379. The name of the person or thing acted on directly is 
called the Direct Object, and the name of the person or thing 
acted on indirectly is called the Indirect Object.^ 

* Those who are learning Latin will see that the Direct Object in English corresponds to 
the Direct or Nearer Object put in the Accusative Case, and the Indirect Object corresponds 
to the Indirect or Remoter Object put in the Dative Case ; as, ' Fatet Kftnim \>j:^^i ^i>M» 
tl>at.]dat* 



l82 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Examples of Indirect Object. 



Sentence. 



The teacher promised him a 

prize 
Frank gave his sister an apple 
The farmer sent her a brace of 

partridges 



Direct Object, 
a prize 

an apple 

a brace of part- 
ridges 



Indirect Object, 



him 

his sister 
her 



380. Each of these sentences can be written with a Preposi- 
tion before the Indirect Object ; thus — 



The teacher promised him a prize 

Frank gave his sister an apple 
The squire sent her a brace of 
partridges 



The teacher promised a prize [to] 

him 
Frank gave an apple [to] his sister 
The squire sent a brace of part- 
ridges [to] her 



It wilLthus be seen that the * Indirect Object * (with the Pre- 
position which can be placed before it) is practically a Preposi- 
tional Phrase and an Adjunct of the Predicate. In parsing, say 
that the Indirect Object is in the Objective Case governed by the 
understood Preposition ; and in analysing, call the Indirect Object 
and Preposition an Adjunct of the Predicate.^ 



Exercise 186. 

1. Pick out the Direct Objects. 

2. Pick out the * Indirect Objects * and supply the Prepositions 
understood. 

' His uncle left him a thousand dollars. The master lent his man a 
horse. My mother sent me a letter. The teacher gave his boys a les>on ; 
he taught them French. They did so well that he promised them a holiday. 
The girl showed the doctor her crushed finger. The child offered the beggar 
a penny. I had bought myself a pair of boots. The servant will bring you 
some water. The child told us the truth. The gardener sold me some 
beautiful roses. That man owes his grocer seven dollars; he has just 
paid him one dollar. The gentleman offered us his carriage. I will show 
you how to parse. 

' See 'Notes for Teacliera; p. 259,li(o\A &5. 



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 183 



Interrogative Sentences. 

Bead again Pars. 120 and 121, and work again Exercises 84 

and 85. 

Exercise 187. 

Analyze the following Interrogative (or Questioning) sen* 
tences. 

What's an egg to me or you ? 

What way does the wind come ? 

Must he then watch it rise no more ? 

Why preach ye here ? 

The tear-drop who can blame ? 

Know ye not Agincourt ? 

Now wherefore stopp'st thou me ? 

Why look'st thou so ? 

Where are those lights so many and fair ? 

Whom do you seek ? 

Shall these vile creatures dare 
Murmur against thee ? 

How could they rest within their graves ? 

Whither . . . dost thou pursue thy solitary way^? 

Can storied urn or animated bust 

Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath ? 

Can honor's voice provoke the silent dust ? 

What objects are the fountains 
Of thy happy strain ? 

Imperative and Optative Sentences. 

Bead again Pars. 122 and 123, and work again Exercise 86. 

Exercise 188. 

Analyze the following Imperative (or Commanding) and 
Optative [or Wishing) sentences, 

a. Live with me. Be my love. Never from my side depart. Lend me 
your ears. Neglect him not. Provide for thine own future safety. Love 
thyself last. Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace to silence envious 
tongues. Break his bonds of sleep asunder. ^ Chase all thy feaxcL vkv^. \js^ 
us take a walk. 



l84 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

b. May heaven defend the right. May you be happy. Thy kingdom 

eome. Thy will be done. 

Teach my heart 

Still in the right to stay. 
Soft sigh the winds of heaven o'er their srare* 

Long Sentences. 

Bead again Par, 860. 

881. A sentence which contains only one Finite Verb is called 
a Simple Sentence. 

382. A Simple Sentence may, through having Adjuncts of 
the Subject, Predicate, or Object, be long. 

Examples of long Simple Sentences. 

1. No more, surveying with an eye impartial 

The long line of the coast. 
Shall the gaunt figure of the old Field-Marshal 
Be seen upon his post. 

Subject Figure 

Adjuncts of the Subject 1. the 

2. gaunt 

3. of the old Field-Marshal 

4. surveying with an eye impartial the 

long line of the coast 
Predicate shall be seen 

Adjuncts of the Predicate 1. no more (Time) 

2. upon his post [Place) 

2. [For] in the night, unseen, a single warrior, 

In somber harness mailed. 
Dreaded of man, and sumamed the Destroyer, 
The rampart wall has scaled. 

Subject Warrior 

Adjuncts of the Subject 1. a 

2. single 

3. in somber harness mailed 

4. dreaded of man 

5. and sumamed the Destroyer 
Predicate has scaled 

Object wall 

AdJimotB of the Object 1. the 

2. xampaiU 



LONG SENTENCES 185 



8. Slowly and sadly we laid him down 

From the field of his fame fresh and gory. 

Subject We 

Predicate laid 

Object him 

Adjuncts of the Object fresh and gory from the field of his fame 

Adjuncts of the Predicate 1. slowly (Manner) 

2. and sadly (Maimer) 

3. down (Place) 

Exercise 189. 

A nalyze the following sentences : — 

[But] knowledge to their eyes her ample page 
Bich with the spoils of time did ne'er unroll. 

Full many a gem of purest ray serene 
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear. 

Him shall no sunshine from the fields of azure, 

No drum-beat from the wall, 
No morning gun from the fort's black embrasure, 

Awaken with its call. 

Up and down the dreary camp 

In great boots of Spanish leather, 
Striding with a measured tramp, 
These Hidalgos, dull and damp, 

Cursed the Frenchmen. 

Hearing the Imperial name 

Coupled with these words of malice. 
Half in anger, half in shame. 
Forth the great campaigner came 

Slowly from his canvas palace. 

From the alehouse and the inn 

Opening on the narrow street. 
Game the loud convivial din. 

Singing, and applause of feet. 

In my study I see in the lamplight 

Descending the broad hall-stair 
Grave Alice and laughing Allegra 

And Edith with golden hair. 

By the bedside, on the stair. 

At the threshold, near the gates, 
With its menace or its prayer. 

Like a mendicant it ^«i\A. 



I86 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Out of the bosom of the air, 

Out of the cloud-fold of her garments shaken, 

Over the woodlands brown and bare, 

Over the harvest fields forsaken, 

Silent and soft and slow 

Descends the snow. 



Miscellaneous Simple Sentences for Analysis. 

[Analyze according to the model given ki Par. 375, or the model given in Par. 
a82.] 

Evil communications corrupt good manners. 

Man wants but little here below. 

May never pity soothe thee with a sigh. 

My day or night myself I make. 

Prove thou thy words. 

The earth to thee her incense yields. 

The glories of our birth and state 
Are shadows. 

Onward, onward, may we press 
Through the path of duty. 

My story being done, 
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs* 

A fair maid sat at her bower-door 
Wringing her lily hands. 

Tour glorious standard launch again 
To match another foe. 

Britannia needs no bulwarks, 
No towers along the steep. 

With thunders from her native oak 
She quells the floods below. 

Weigh the vessel up 
Once dreaded by the foes. 

[And] she may float again 

Full charged with England's thunder, 

[And] he and his eight hundred 
BhtkU plough the wave no more. 



SIMPLE SENTENCES 187 

No stores beneath its humble thatoh 
Bequired a master's care. 

The wicket, opening with a latch, 
Beoeived the harmless pair. 

His rising cares the hermit spied, 
With answering care oppressed. 

To win me from his tender arms 
Unnumbered suitors came. 

Her wing shall the eagle flap 
O'er the false-hearted. 

To seek thee did I often rove ♦ 
Through woods and on the green. 

Vainly the fowler's eye 
Might mark thy distant flight to do thee wrong. 

The modest wants of every day 
The toil of every day supplied. 

[But] on the British heart were lost 
The terrors of that charging host. 

[And] to the hilt his vengeful sword 
He plunged in Gelert's side. 

The pavement damp and cold 
No smiling courtiers tread. 

There is in the wide lone sea 
A spot unmarked but holy. 

How oft the sight of means to do ill deeds 
Makes ill deeds done. 

He finds his fellow guilty of a skin 
Not colored like his own. 

Silently one by one in the infinite meadows of heayen 
Blossomed the lovely stars, the forget-me-nots of the angels. 

Sandwich, and Bomney, Hastings, Hythe, and Dover, 

Were all alert that day 
To see the French wai-stettxnex^ w^^^^\|,^^^^« 



x88 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

In the courtyard of the castle, bound ^ith many an iron band, 
Stands the mighty linden planted by Queen Eunigunde's hand. 

In that hour of deep contrition 
He beheld, with clearer vision, 
Through all outward show and fashion, 
Justice the avenger rise. 

The blossom opening to the day, 

The dews of heaven refined, 
Gould nought of purity display 

To emulate his mind. 

Hence in silence and in sorrow, toiling still with busy hand. 
Like an emigrant he wandered, seeking for the Better Land. 

Additional sentences : — Exercise 171, a. 



COMPLEX SBNTBNOBS. 
Noun Clauses. 

383. In many sentences the work of a Noun is done not by 
a Noun (or Pronoun) but by what, standing alone, would be a 
sentence ; as, * I knew you were coming.* 

* You were coming * would, if standing alone, be a sentence, but a 
sentence expresses a complete thought and here neither * I knew * nor 

* you were coming * does that. The complete sentence therefore is * I 
knew you were coming,' and the Object to knew is * you were coming.* 

* You were coming,' as here used^ though containing a Finite Verb, is 
not a sentence, and we call it a Clause, and the sentence which con- 
tains the Clause is called a Complex Sentence. All Glauses are called 
Subordinate, because they depend upon some of the principal parts of 
the Complex Sentence. 

384. ' A Complex Sentence ^ is one which, besides a prin- 
cipal Subject and Predicate, contains one or more Subordinate 

* 'It will obviate much confasion if the term "sentence** be restricted to a combina- 
tion of words forming a complete vhole^ *' Clause " to a subordinate member containing a 
J^/nite Ferb, and "Phrase ** to any combination of words which does not contain a Finite Verb 
expressed or understood,* -^MoMn, 



NOUN CLAUSES 



189 



Clauses which have Subjects and Predicates of their own,' — 
Mason. 

385. In a Simple Sentence a Noun may be the Subject, the 
Complement of the Predicate, the Object, or in Apposition to 
some other Noun. Similarly in a Complex Sentence a Noun 
Clause may be the Subject, the Complement of the Pre^cate, 
the Object, or in Apposition to a Noun ; thus — 

Simple Sentences. 



Nown as Subject 

Noun OB Complement of the 

Predicate 
Noun as Object 
Noun m Apposition 



The truth is clear. 
These axe facts. 

I believe James. 

Tom, the piper's son, stole a pig. 

They caught Tom, the piper's son. 



Complex Sentences. 



Norm Clause as Subject 
Nov/n Clause as Complement 

of the Predicate 
Noun Clause as Object 
Nov/n Clause in Apposition 



That you have been deceived is clear. 
<^Things are not what they seem. 

I believe Ja/mes is honest. 

The fact that he was beaten coiild not 

be denied. 
We had a hope that you might be safe. 



386. In analyzing a Complex Sentence first find the prin- 
cipal Predicate. Then proceed as though the sentence were 
Simple. Afterwards analyze the Clauses : you will recognize 
them by their containing Finite Verbs. 



Exercise 190. 

a. Pick out the Noun Glauses used as Subjects. 

That the ship was lost is certain. That our brother maj be saved is our 
hope. Whoever did that will be rewarded. Where the money was hidden 
was never found out. Why the clerk went away was not kaown. That 
the groom was the thief is firmly believed. Whether I can come iiel 
doubtful. 



190 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



b. Bick out the Noun Clames used as Complements of the 
Predicate. 

His wish was that he might die in battle. Our desire was that our 
father might return. That is what he means. Things are not what they 
seem. My hope is that you may prosper. 

c. Pick out the Noun Clauses used as Objects. 

I heard what you said. We know that you are coming. The man be- 
lieved that he was right. Everybody thought that Mr. Bobins was a rich 
man. We hear that he is much liked. Who can say where the garden is ? 
Tell me [* Indirect Object '] how you work this sum. I will explain how 
you should do it. 

387. We often find a Noun Clause coming after the Predicate 
used in apposition to it coming before the Predicate ; as, * It is 
likely that we shall have rain soon,' 

Looking at the grammar of such a sentence the Subject is it, but 
looking at the sense or logic of it the Subject is the Noun Clause ; it 
is therefore sometimes called the Grammatical Subject and the Noim 
Clause the Logical Subject 

The it is used to bring the verb before the Logical Subject. [Com- 
pare with the preparatory use of there, pars. 3^3-355.] \ 



Preparatory It tuith Noun 

Clause in Apposition. 
It is likely that we shall have rain. 
It is reported that the prince is 

dead. 
It is doubtful whether you will 

be in time. 



Noun Clause a^ Grammatical . 

Subject (with no It). 
That we shall have rain is likely. 
That the prince is dead is reported. 

Whether you will be in time is 
doubtful. 



Exercise 191. 

Pick out the Noun Glauses in Apposition. 

It is said that the ship is wrecked. It is doubtful whether he will come. 
It was told the King of Egypt that the people fled. *Tis said with sorrow 
time can cope. It mattered little to him what happened. It is strange that 
you did not hear the news. The fact that we believed in him made him 
work. Who can explain the fact that the sun has spots ? 

388. A Noun or a Phrase may often be expanded into a 
N^oun Clause, and a Noun Clause may be shortened into a Noun 
or a Phrase; thus — 



NOUN CLAUSES 



191 



Noun or Phrase expanded into a Noun Clause, 



The burial place of Moses is not 
known. 

The reasons for peace are uncer- 
tain. 

His speech was not like madness. 

They demanded the punishment 

of the thief. 
He can prove his innocence. 
The result was the discovery of 

lead. 



Where Moses was buried is nol 
known. 

It is uncertain why peace was 
made. 

What he spoke was not like mad- 
ness. 

They demanded that the thief 
should be punished. 

He can prove that he is innocent. 

The result was that lead was dis- 
covered. 



Noun Clause shortened into a Noun or Phrase. 



That exercise is healthful cannot 

be denied. 
How the man returned remains 

to be learned. 
We saw that it was wise to give in. 
Everybody knows who wrote 

* Kobinson Crusoe.' 
We believe that John can do the 

work. 
The punishment is that you be 



The healthfiilness of exercise can- 
not be denied. 

The manner of the man's return 
remains to be learned. 

We saw the wisdom of giving in. 

Everybody knows the author of 
* Kobinson Crusoe.' 

We believe in John's ability to do 
the work. 

The punishment is your dismissal. 



dismissed. 

Exercise 192. 

a. Expand into Noun Clauses the words printed in italics. 

He remembers our coming into the town. Everybody thinks the man 
very kind, I cannot understand the reason of his feature. Tell me your 
a>ge. They never learned the fate of their friends. Decide the date of the 
next meeting. His success was owing to me. 

b. Shorten into Nouns or Phrases the Noun Clauses printed 

in italics. 

How the prisoner escaped was never found out. We believe that he was 
innocent, I cannot understand why he failed. Tell me how old you are. 
We could not hear what became of our friends. Decide when we shall meet 
again. It was owing to me that he su^cceeded, 

389. Methods of analyzing sentences containing Noun Glauses. 

Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make out \y\^^ ^\\Jci\\vcL^. 



193 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 






% 



QO 









o 



o ™ ^ 

m • 2 

It • Q 



QQ 






t 






1 



il^-l 



a 






rH 6bSo4 



OQ 



I 



eS 









CQ 



f 

so 



'I 



•^ol 






=3 



" a s 

rt " w 



g a g 
•-1 



> 
5 o'A 



a s 

a> o 



PQ 



a> 



NOUN CLAUSES 193 



That you have not succeeded is your own fault. 

A ( gnbiect That you .... succeeded (B) 

Complex Sentence p^^^^^^3 is (F. I. P ) 

V your own fault {pomig^ 

/Introductory (or that 



B 

Noun Clause sub 

jectto 
is ... . fault, 
(A) 



connecting) 

word 
Subject you 

Predicate have succeeded 

Adjunct of the not (Negation) 

Predicate 



Exercise 193. 

Analyze the following sentences : — 

That the groom was the thief is firmly believed. 

That the ship was lost is certain. 

Why the clerk went away is not known. 

Things are not what they seem. 

Who can say where the garden is ? 

Think how Bacon shined. 

Whatever is best administered is best. 

Whatever is is right. 

What must be shall be. 

What man dare I dare. 

What in me is dark illumine. 

The village all declared how much he knew. 

Dost thou know who made thee ? 

Do you ask what the birds say ? 

What it says I don't know. 

He told her what they said. 

'Twas true he was monarch. 

The joyful son 
Shall finish what his shortlived sire begun. 

Then thou wouldst at last discover, 
*Twas not well to spurn me «o. 



194 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Tie said with sorrow time can cope. 

Oar merchants will employ us 
To fetch them wealth, we know. 

That yoa have wronged me doth appear in this. 

He hath heard that men of few words are the best men. 

I doubt not through the ages one increasing purpose runs. 

They say the tongues of dying men 
Enforce attention like deep harmony. 

390. A Noun Clause is most often joined to the rest of the 
sentence by the Conjunction that ; as 

Noun Cla/uae as Subject, That you have wronged me doth appear 
in this. 

Noun Clause as Object, He hath heard that men of few words 
are the best men. 

Nou/n Clause as Complement, The truth is that I am tired. 

Noun Cla/use in Apposition. It is true that I am tired. 

391. The Conjunction that (except when it introduces a 
Noun Clause used as Subject) is often omitted ; as 

He hath heard men of few words are the best. 
The truth is I am tired. 
It is true I am tired. 

392. Other Conjunctions which introduce Noun Clauses are 
ivhether and if [= whether] ; as 

^ I doubt whether he can come. 

I doubt if he can come. 

393. These Conjunctions {that, whether, and if), as they join 
a subordinate clause to the other parts of a sentence, are called 
Subordinating CoQJ unctions. 



ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 



195 



Adjective Clauses. 

394. The place ef an Adjective may often be taken by a 
Clause; as, 

Sentence with Clause in jplace of 



Sentence with Adjective, 



That is a tall boy. 

The youngest girl lost her doll. 

The best child will be rewarded. 



Adjective. 



That is a boy who is tall. 

The girl who was yoimgest lost 

her doll. 
The child who is best will be 

rewarded. 



395. The Clause which thus takes the place of an Adjective is 
called an Adjective Clause. 



Exercise 194. 

a. Change into Adjective Clauses the Adjectives printed in 
italics. 

Ourmother tells us |>re^^^ talcs. The sicA; child is gettmg better. That 
is a false report. Hard-working people deserve to get on. Everybody liked 
their [Pronoun] offer. His broody clear brow in sunlight glowed. 

b. Change into Adjectives the Adjective Clauses printed in 
italics. 

Most of the novels which Scott wrote are very interesting. The task 
which you have to do\& easy. I shall long remember the fright which I had, 
A bird that is old is not caught with chaff. Uneasy lies the head that wears 
a crown. Let me have men about me that are fat. 

396. Adjective Clauses cannot always be changed into Adjec- 
tives. The Adjective Clauses in the following sentences, for 
example, cannot be: — 

There was never yet philosopher 

That could endure the toothache patiently. 



There is a tide in the affairs of men 

Whicht taken at the ^ood, leada ou to iotVAwtvA, 



^^ 




196 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

397. An Adjective Clause may be easily recognized from 
the fact that it is always joined to some Noun (or Pronoun), 
and tells something about the person or thing named. 

398. As every Relative Pronoun (except what) introduces a 
Clause about the Antecedent it follows that every Belative Pro- 
noun (except wha1^ introduces an Adjective Clause joined to (or 
qualifying) the Antecedent. 

Exercise 195. 

In Exercises 106 and 107 pick out the Adjective Clauses and 
say what each Clause qualifies. 

Bead again Par. 193 and work again Exercise 108. 

Exercise 196. 

Pick out the Adjective Clauses in Exercise 108 and say what 
each qualifi^. 

399. Adjective Clauses are also introduced by Conjunctive 
Adverbs ; as, 

This is the factory where my brother works. 

It shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it. 

The prisoner was sent back to the place whence he came. 

Exercise 197. 

Pick out the Adjective Clauses and say what each qualifies. 

I remember the house where I was bom. I know a bank whereon the 
wild thyme blows. The reason why he came is not known. The place 
whither you are traveling is far away. Look to the rock whence ye are 
hewn. What is the cause wherefore ye are come ? 

400. Methods of Analyzing Sentences containing Adjective 
Clauses. 

Know ye the land where the cypress and myrtle 
Are emblema of deeds that are done m l\i^\i cUmfi ? 



ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 



197 




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<D_S >* 






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o 



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o "^ • 

« 9 • 






^ • 2 



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e8 "'"^i^ qj O O 



I 



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to 



® p.§ a 



eS 

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1 1 «|5 

S 'fC* c8 ^ S 



^ • 

QQ 

a> oQ 

^ Q> A 

<D ^ d 




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198 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

The long-remembered beggar was his guest 
Whose beard descending swept his aged breast. 

Subject beggar 

Complex J fhi'^ut'e^t r 2' lo4^ 

Sentence. \ ^^® oa^ject j 3 ^^^^^ ^^^.^ ^ ^ ^ ^^.^^^ ^^ 

Predicate was (F. I. P.) 

his guest (Com]^^ 



B. 

Adjective 
Clause 
qualifying 
beggar (A) 



Subject beard 

Adjuncts of ) 1. whose 

the Subject i 2. descending 

Predicate swept 

Object breast 

Adjuncts of I 1. his 

the Object ^ 2. aged 



Exercise 198. 

Analyze the following sentences : — 

He is rich enough that wants nothing. 

The flame that lit the battle's wreck 
Shone round him o'er the dead. 

He is the freeman whom the truth makes freot 

The thirst that from the soul doth rise 
Doth ask a drink divine. 

Call that holy ground 
Which first their brave feet trod. 

Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. 

The roses soon withered that hung o'er the wave* 

By ceaseless action all that is subsists. 

Within the hollow crown 
That rounds the mortal temples of a king 
Keeps death his court. 

Nature never did betray 
The heart that loved her. 

The moon, that once was round and fall| 
J3 now a silver boak -^ , ' 



ADJECTIVE CLAUSES ^^ 



All I hear 
Is the north-wind drear. 

It is the hour when from the boughs 
The nightingale's high note is heard. 

The spirits I have raised abandon me. 

A Turkey carpet was the lawn 
Whereon he loved to bound. 

Bright be the flowery sod 
Where first the child's glad spirit loves 
Its country and its God. 

Then think I ... of meadows where in the stm the 
cattle graze. 

Kot a soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero we buried. 

The true old times are dead 
When every morning brought a noble chance. 

Infected be the air whereon they ride. 

I had a mighty cause 
Why I should wish him dead. 

There came 
Two blighting seasons when the fields were left 
With half a harvest. 

[But oh 1 *] of all delightful sounds 

Of evening or of mom 
The sw3etest is the voice of love 

That welcomes his return. 

The vile strength he wields 
For earth's destruction thou dost all despise. 

[And] ever like base cowards who leave their ranks 
In danger's hour before the rush of steel 
Drifted away, disorderly, the planks 
From underneath her ' keel. 

* Omit. ' The wrecked sMp BirkenKeoA. 



\ 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 





Adverb. 


Time. 


My RiRter will come 




presently. 


Place. 


Go hence. 


Manner. 


They came quiclcly. 


Degree. 


I am mtich stronger. 



Adverbial Clauses. 

401. The work of an Adverh may he done by an Adverbial 
Clause; thus: — 

Adverbial Cla/use. 
My sister will come wJien she 

ha^ finished her lessons. 
Go where glory waits thee. 
Not <w the conqueror comes 

they, the true-hearted, came. 
I am stronger than my sister 

\is strong^ 

402. An Adverbial Clause, like an Adverb, qualifies a Verb, 
Adjective, or Adverb. 

In the examples just given the Adverbial Clause of Time qualifies 
the Verb will come ; the Adverbial Clause of Place quaUfies the Verb 
go ; the Adverbial Clause of Manner qualifies the Verb ca/me ; the Ad- 
verbial Clause of Degree quaHfies the Adjective stronger. In the 
sentence * I am so tired that I can go no further ^ the Adverbial Clause 
qualifies the Adverb so. 

Exercise 199. 

PicTc out the Adverbial Glauses of Time and say what each 
qualifies. 

My cousin called while I was out. She stayed till I came back. We 
saw some beautiful pictures when we were in London. The boy has worked 
hard since he was promoted. We shall be pleased to see you whenever you 
arrive. The train had gone before the boy reached the station. The little 
girl was tired after she had walked a mile. Make hay while the sun 
shines. He had a fever when he was in Spain. Green was the com as I 
rode on my way. 

Before the bright sun rises over the hill 
In the cornfield poor Mary is seen. 

The king himself has followed her 
When she has walked before. 

Life has passed 
With me but roughly ^cq 1 ^QiNi thee last. 



ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 201 

[And] the heavy night hung dark 

The hills and waters o'er, 
When a band of exiles moored their bark 

On the wild New England shore. 

Could you make it whole by crying 
Till your eyes and nose are red ? 

[But] I lost my sweet little doll [dears] 
As I played on the heath one day. 

Daily near my table steal 
While I pick my scanty meal. 

Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower 
And trimmed the lamps as the sun went down. 

Let us haste away 
. . . Ere yet yon sea the bark devours. 

[And] Death, whenever he comes to me, 
Shall come on the wild unbounded sea. 

Exercise 200. 

PicTc out the Adverbial Glauses of Place and say what each 
qualifies. 

The man has returned whence he came. Go whither I sent you. Go 
where glory waits thee. The servant must go wherever he is told. Smooth 
runs the water where the brook is deep. Fools rush in where angels fear to 
tread. Where thou dwellest I will dwell. Where the carcase is, there will 
the eagles be gathered together. Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be 
wise. Where once we dwelt our name is heard no more. Wherever I went 
was my poor dog Tray. 

There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, 
The village preacher's modest mansion rose. 

Exercise 201. 

Pick out the Adverbial Glauses of Manner and say what each 
qualifies. 

As heroes think, so thought the Bruce. As the hart panteth after the 
waterbrooks, so panteth my soul after Thee. An honest man speaks aa ha 
thinks. As the tree falls, so must it lie. Aa Oi TajKaYv.-^^^, ^a» \KSi5^>Ck!^^ask* 



202 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

As the sun breaks through the darkest clouds, 
So honor peereth in the meanest habit. 

Not as the conqueror comes 
They, the true-hearted, came. 

My muse doth not delight 
Me as she did before ; 
My hand and pen are not in plight 
As they have been of yore.' 

403. All the Adverbial Clauses of Manner given in the last 
Exercise are introduced by the word as ; this word also intro- 
duces Adverbial Clauses of Degree ; as, ' The house is not so big 
OA I expected.' 

Here, ' as I expected ' is an Adverbial Clause of Degree, qualifying 
the Adjective hig. 

404. Adverbial Clauses of Degree are also introauced by the 
Conjunction than and the Adverb the {see Par. 825) ; as, 

Half a loaf is better than no bread. 

The higher you mm the higher you will reach. 

' Than no bread [is good] ' is an Adverbial Clause of Degree qualifying 
better ; * The higher you aim ' is an Adverbial Clause of Degree qaalifying 
the second higher, 

405. Adverbial Clauses of Degree generally have several words 
* understood ' ; thus : — 



Sentence with words * v/nder- 
stood.' 



The boy is as old as the girl. 
Wisdom is better than riches. 

The more the merrier. 




Sentence infuU. 



The boy is as old a« the girl is old' 
Wisdom is better than riches a/re 

good. 
The more we a/re the merrier we 

shall be. 



Two oomplez sentences ; analyse them separately. 



ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 203 



Exercise 202. 

"Pick out the Adverbial Clauses of Degree, say what each 
qualifies, and fill in the words understood. 

[Remember that Adverbial Gauses of Degree always qualify Adjectives or 
Adverbs.] 

The child*s hands are as cold as ice. What is stronger than the lion ? 
What is sweeter than honey ? A man on a bicycle goes faster than a man 
on a horse. I am a man more sinned against than sinning. The general 
was more lacky than clever. The harder you study the more you will 
learn. The fellow is lazier than ever. The more some men have the mord 
they want. 

Exercise 203. 

Pick out the Adverbial Clauses of Cause and say what each 
qualifies, 

I came because you called me. I came, for you wanted me. I came, as 
you sent for me. I will stay, since you wish it. The'dog could not enter, 
because the hole was too small. Corruption was necessary to the Tudors, 
for their Parliaments were feeble. The sailors would not go to sea, for the 
ship was rotten. As you are tired, you may rest. The hireling fleeth, 
because he is an hireling. We love him because he first loved us. Since 
my country calls me, I obey. Freely we serve, because we freely love. 



Exercise 204. 

Pick out the Adverbial Clauses of Purpose and say what each 
qualifies, 

A temperate man eats that he may live. A glutton lives that he may 
eat. Beware lest you fall. She went on tiptoe, lest she should wake the 
baby. Judge not, that ye be not judged. The boy is studying, that he may 
win the prize. Let my people go, that they may serve me. I went to the 
window, that I might see more clearly. Be silent, that you may hear. Have 
respect to mine honor, that you may believe. Awake your senses, that you 
may the better judge. 



204 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Exercise 205. 

Picfc out the Adverbial Clauses of Consequence and say what 
each qualifies. 

The mountain is so high that you cannot see the top of it. That man is 
so dishonest that no one trusts him. The king was such a tyrant that his 
subjects at last rebelled. Your letter was lost, so that we did not hear from 
you. Tom was such a kind fellow that all his companions loved him. The 
people were so tired of James's rule that they would not fight for him. A 
great many visitors arrived at once, so that the hotel was too full. My coat 
iji so thick that I do not fear the cold. Tour letter is such a scrawl that I 
cannot read it. 

Exercise 206. 

Pick out the Adverbial Clauses of Condition and say what 
each qualifies. 

I will come with you if you wish it. You will be punished unless you 
do better. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. Though he slay 
me, yet will I trust him. Whistle and I'll come to thee. Had your brotiier 
been here I should have told him. You must obey the laws however you 
may dislike them. Help will be welcome whoever brings it. If we had 
known you were in town, we should have called on you. Though you took 
his life, bury him as a prince. Though hand join in hand the wicked shall 
not go unpunished. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. If thy 
right eye offend thee, pluck it out. 

Had she lived a twelvemonth more, 
She had [:== would have] not died to-day. 

The teardrop who can blame, 
Though it dim the veteran's aim ? 

Above the crowd 
On upward wings could I but fly, 
I'd bathe in yon bright cloud. 

Though the coast seemed near, 
Sharks hovered thick along that white sea-brink. 

406. Methods of Analyzing Sentences containing Adverbial 
Clauses. 

I am in blood 
Steep'd in so hx that^ should I wade no more, 
fietuming were as ledio\x& qa %o o'^x. 



ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 



.3.9 s| J Sg^lg 









L^.gl 1| 



t 



■-■ss.s 



3|a* 311,1 
llfl llll 



206 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Teach me half the gladness 
That thy hrain must know, 

Such harmonious madness 
From my lips would flow 
The world should listen then as I am listening now* 



Complex 
Sentence 



^Subject 

Adjuncts of the 
Subject 



1 



Predicate 
Adjuncts of the ) 
Predicate ' 



madness 

1. such [that] the world should 
listen . . . now (D) 

2. harmonious 
would flow 

1. teach me half . , . know (B) 

2. from my lips 



B 

Complex Ad- 
verbial Clause 
of Condition 

qualifying 
wondA fl(yw (k) 



/Subject 

Predicate 

Object 

Adjuncts of the \ 
Object f 

Adjuncts of the ) 
^ Predicate ' 



[thou] 

teach 

half 

1. [of] the gladness 

2. that thy brain must know (0) 

[to] me {pr Indirect Object) 



/Subject 

Adjective Clause Adjuncts of the \ 
qualifying •< Subject ' 

gladness (B) I Predicate 
V Object 



brain 
thy 

must know 
that 



D /Subject 

Adverbial Clause Adjunct of the ) 
of Consequence! Subject ' 

qualifying such] Predicate 



(A) 



Adjunct of the 
Predicate 



world 
the 

should listen 

1. then (Time) 

2. as I am hstening now (E) 



E 



Adverbial Clause 
of Manner 



Connecting word 
Subject 



as 
I 

qualifying i Predicate am listening 

s^iould /w/^ J Adjunct of the ( noy<r (Time) 



\ Predicate 



ADVERBIAL CLAUSES 2C7 



Exercise 207. 

Analyze the following sentences : — 

They trimmed the lamps as the sun went down. 

He had a fever when he was in Spain. 

Wherever I went was my poor dog Tray. 

Where the carcase is there will the eagles be gathered together. 

Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise. 

The child's hands* are as cold as ice. 

What is stronger than the lion ? 

I am a man more sinned against than sinning. 

The more some men have the more they want. 

Freely we serve, because we freely love. 

Since my country calls me I obey. 

The sailors would not go to sea, for the ship was rotten. 

Judge not, that ye be not judged. 

Be silent, that you may hear. 

Awake your senses, that you may the better judge. 

The mountain is so high that you cannot see the top of it. 

The king was such a tyrant that his subjects rebelled. 

Tour letter is such a scrawl that I cannot read it. 

Laziness travels so slowly that Poverty soon overtakes him. 

I will come if you wish it. 

Except ye repent, ye shall likewise perish. 

Thotigh he slay me, yet will I trust him. 

Whistle, and I'll come to thee. 

Before the bright sun rises over the hill 
In the cornfield poor Mary is seen. 

Life has passed 
With me but roughly since I saw thee last. 

Could you make it whole by crying 
Till your eyes and nose are red ? 

Daily near my table steal 
While I pick my scanty meal. 

There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. 
The village preacher's modest mansion rose. 

As a man lives, so must he die. 

As the sun breaks through the darkest clouds, 
So honor peereth in the meoiXL^^XV^dXaVi. 



908 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Not as the conqueror comes 
They, the true-hearted, came. 

Had she lived a twelvemonth more, 
She had not died to-day. 

The teardrop who can blame, 
Though it dim the warrior's aim? 

One impulse from a vernal wood 

May teach you more of man, 

Of moral evil, and of good, - 

Than all the sages can. 

Next morning as I passed, 
I found her lying dead. 

Shut your eyes, for now the day 
And the light are gone away. 

Gould I but see a traitor. 
How bravely I should fight. 

Bo faint I am, these tottering feet 
No more my palsied frame can bear. 

In the blue air no smoky cloud 

Hung over wood and lea. 
When the old church with the flretted tower 

Had a hamlet round its knee. 

As through the drifting snow she pressed, 
The babe was sleeping on her breast. 

We walked along, while bright and red 
Uprose the morning sun. 

She was a phantom of delist. 

When first she gleamed upon my sight. 

407. Examine a Subordinate Clause well before making up 
your mind what to call it. The same Clause may do different 
work in different sentences ; thus :— 

I know when he a/rrived. 

I know the hour when he arrived, 

I was out when he arrived, 

'When he Arrived' is in the first sentence Object to know^ and 



COMPLEX SENTENCES 209 



\ 



tlierefore a Noun Clause ; in the second sentence it qualifies the Noim 
Ifiowry and is therefore an Adjective Clause ; in the third sentence it 
qualifies the Verb wa%^ and is therefore an Adverbial Clause. 

Exercise 208. 

Say of what hind each Subordinate Clatise is. 

Do you know where he lives? I live where he lives. I live in the 
village where he lives. 

I cannot tell how he can write. He writes how he can. 

As the bell tinkleth so the fool thinketh. I reached the door as the 
bells were ringing. As the bells were ringing, the children could not sleep. 

I bless the day when I first saw you. I remember when I first saw you. 
My sister was abroad when I first saw you. 

I see whom you are expecting. I see the person whom you are ex- 
pecting. 

We asked whence he came. Oxford is the city whence he came. He 
must return whence he came. 

This is the hour when all are asleep. The thief comes when all are 
asleep. Do you know when all are asleep ? 

I know where roses grow. This is the garden where roses grow. Bees 
hum where roses grow. 

Miscellaneous Complex Sentences fbr Analysis. 

While leanest beasts in pastures feed, 
The fattest ox the first must bleed. 

He that loses his conscience has nothing left that is worth keeping^ 

My advice is that you endeavor to be honestly rich or contentedly poor. 

The most convenient habit you can acquire is that of letting your habits 
sit loose upon you. 

Satire is a sort of glass wherein beholders generally discover everybody*a 
(ac3 but their own. 

He that is giddy thinks the world turns round. 

The vile strength he wields 

For earth's destruction thou dost all despise. 

Trifles discover the character more than actions of importance. 

Blessed is he that expecteth iiot3[nxk%,iQit\i<& ^^E^si2^Ti<gp^^&\)^^osfew;s^Fs«s^c^ 



2IO LOXGMAXS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



As the sun breaks throogh the darkest elondfi 
So honor peereth in the meanest habit 

It ia not growing like a tree 

In balk doth make man better be. 

Though good things answer many good intents. 
Crosses do still bring forth the best events. 

When the infant begins to walk, it thinks it lives in strange times. 

This morning, like the spirit of a youth 
That means to be of note, begins betimes. 

The men 
Whom nature's work can oharm, with God himself 
Hold converse. 

It's easy findin^^ reasons why other folks should be patient. 

It was the winter wild 

When the heaven-bom child 

All meanly wrapp'd in the rude manger lies. 

I knew 't was I, for many do call me fooL 

The truth you speak doth lack some gentleness, 
And time to speak it in. 

Soon as the evening shades prevail 
The moon takes up the wondrous tale. 

Lowliness is young ambition's ladder 
Whereto the climber upwards turns his face. 

To me the meanest flower that blows can give 
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears. 

Truth is as impossible to be soiled by any outward touch as the sun- 
beam. 

Laziness travels so slowly that Poverty soon overtakes him. 

I stood on the bridge at midnight, 
As the clocks were striking the hour. 

The boy stood on the burning deck 
Whence all but he had fled. 

A time there was, ere England's griefs began, 
When every rood of ground maintained its man. 

That which ia a competency for one maA ia Tio\ enoxx^ lox «xvni^«K« 



COMPLEX SENTENCES ftii 

They that govern most make least noise. 

He who ascends to mountain-tops shall find 
The loftiest peaks most wrapt in clouds and snow. 

Had I but died an hour before this chance 
I had lived a blessed time. 

I love my pretty home, 

My little garden gay, 
Where all things look so bright 

This gladsome first of May. 

Those who plan some evil 
From their sin restrain. 

In peace there's nothing so becomes a man 
As modest stillness and humility. 

I feared to view my native spot 
Where one who loved it now was not. 

Clouds that love through air to hasten, 

Ere the storm its fury stills, 
Heimet-lik.e themselves will fasten 

On the heads of towering hills. 

'Tis strange the miser should his cares employ 
To gain those riches he can ne'er enjoy. 

Half the ill we do was done 
By Mr. Nobody. 

Regions Caesar never knew 
Thy posterity shall sway. 

You talk of wondrous things you see. 

With patience I can bear 
A loss I ne'er can know. 

They set, as sets the morning star, which goes 
Not down behind the darkened west. 

Now 'tis little joy 

To know I'm further off from heaven 

Than when I was a boy. 

Who knows not that truth is strong next to the Almighty ? 

Go search it there where to be bom and die 
Of rich and poor make q\V \!ti<b\^<&\Ar^ . 



ai2 LONGMANS* SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

*— 

Hadst thoa sprang 
In deserts where no men abide 
Thou must have uncommended died. 

Well I know 
How the bitter wind doth blow. 

I>o whatever you have to do 
With a true and earnest wilL 



COMPOUND SBNTBNOBS. 

408. Sentences sometimes follow one another which are 
connected in meaning but not in grammar ; as, 

The way was long, the wind was cold, 
The minstrel was infirm and old. 

We have here three independent Simple Sentences : — 

1. The way was long. 

2. The wind was cold. 

3. The minstrel was infirm and old.' 

409. Simple Sentences are often connected both in meaning 
and in grammar ; as, 

They had been friends in youth, 
But whispering tongues can poison truth, 
And constancy lives in realms above. 
And life is thorny and youth is vain. 

Here we have five separate and independent Simple Sentences 
joined by Conjunctions. 

410. Such sentences are said to be Co-ordinate. 

A Suh-ordinate Clause is dependent upon some other part of a 
Complex Sentence ; Co-ordinate Sentences are quite independent of 
each other. 

*■ strictly speaking we have here two sentences :— 

1. The minstrel was infirm. 
8. The minstrel wasi old. 



COMPOUND SENTENCES 213 



411. Sentences which are made up of two or more Co-ordinate 
Sentences are called Compound Sentences. 

412. In analyzing a Compound Sentence which contains nor 
or neither and wor, it will be necessary to put in an Adverb of 
Negation. 

The Compound Sentence *The boy was not clever, nor was he 
good ' may be separated into 

1. The boy was not clever. 

2. He was \noi^ good. 

Similarly the Compound Sentence 'He neither came early nor 
went away late ' may be separated into 

1. He came [710^] early. 

2. [He] went \nof!\ away late. 

413. In analyzing Compound Sentences treat each Co-ordinate 
Sentence as though it stood alone. 

Exercise 209. 

Analyze the following Sentences : — 

Te shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it. 

Poor Susan has passed by the spot and has heard, 
In the silence of morning, the song of the bird. 

The stream will not flow and the hiU will not rise 
And the colors have all passed away from her eyes. 

We lay beneath a spreading oak, 

Beside a mossy seat. 
And from the turf a fountain broke 

And gurgled at our feet. 

The waves beside them danced, but they 
Outdid the sparkling waves in glee. 

The rainbow comes and goes, 
And lovely is the rose. 

The good south wind still blew behind, 

But no sweet bird did follow, 
Nor any day for food or play 

Came to the mariner's hollo. 



214 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



I have neither wit nor words nor worth, 
Action nor utterance, nor the power of speech 
To stir men's blood. 

414. A Compound Sentence may be made np of Co-ordinate 
Complex Sentences ; as, * I love my brother because he is kind, 
and I admire him because he is clever ; * 

The stranger at my fireside cannot see 
The forms 1 see nor hear the sounds I hear. 

415. Sub-ordinate Clauses may also be compounded; as, 
* We saw your sister when we were going and when we were 
coming back.' 

We have here two Sub-ordinate Clauses which are Co-ordinate ; 
together they may be regarded as a Compound Co-ordinate Clause. 

Exercise 210. 

Analyze thefollovnng Sentences : — 

a. Charity creates much of the misery it relieves, but does not 
relieve all the misery it creates. 

He says what he means and means what he says. 

You cannot have what you like, but you can like what you have. 

The laugher will be for those that have most wit, and the serious 
for those that have most reason. 

He that observeth the wind shall not sow, and he that regardeth 
the clouds shall not reap. 

If thou be wise, thou shalt be wise for thyself; but if thou scomest, 
thou alone shalt bear it. 

'Tis said with sorrow time can cope, 
But this I feel can ne'er be true. 

b. The Lord shall send upon thee cursing until thou be destroyed 
and until thou perish quickly. 

We thought as we hollowed his narrow bed 

And smoothed down his lonely pillow, 
How the foe and the stransei wovdd tiQ«.d o'er his head. 



CONJUNCTIONS ^15 



I do not know how old you are 
Or whether you can speak. 

When the rose reigns and locks with ointment shine 
Let rigid Cato read these lines of mine. 



Conjunctions. 

416. Conjunctions are classified according to the kind of 
sentences or clauses which they join. 

417. Conjunctions which join Co-ordinate Sentences, Clauses 
(or Words) are called Co-ordinating Conjunctions. 

418. Conjunctions which introduce Sub-ordinate Clauses are 
called Sub-ordinating Conjunctions. 

Examples of Co-ordinating Conjtmctions* 

Day has come and night has gone. 

I both admire and love him. 

William is diligent, but John is lazy. 

Either Mary or Ellen will help you. 

Neither Mary nor Ellen will help you. 

The servant will obey or he wiU be dismissed.^ 

We cannot say whether he Hves in Bristol or in Bafh. 

Examples of Sub-ordinating Conjunctions* 

We hear that the firm has failed. 

John will come after he has finished his lessons. 

I Hved there before you knew me. 

Stay here till your father returns. 

We were indoors while the storm was raging. 

The boy has grown much since he went away. 

We love hiTT) beca/use he is kind. 

I will stay, since you wish it. 

I knew *twas I, for many do call me fooL 

Walk carefully, lest you Ml. 

Work hard, that you may succeed. 

Exercise 211. 
Classify the Conjunctions in Exerciser %'^A'S^>wA'^^'^ 



2i6 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

» " — • — ^ 

Review. 

Learn again 

419. Every sentence must have two parts, the Subject and 
the Predicate. 

The Subject is the name of the person or thing spoken about. 
The Predicate is what is said about the Subject. 

420. The Subject may be 

(1) A Noun. 

(2) A Pronoun. 

(3) An Infinitive. 

(4) A Gerund. 

(5) An Adjective used as a Noun. 

(6) A Noun Clause. 

421. The Predicate contains or consists of a Finite Verb. 
Verbs of Incomplete Predication require a Complement. 

422. When the Predicate is a Verb in the Active Voice it has 
an Object. 

The Object may be 

(1) A Noun. 

(2) A Pronoun, &c. [like the Subject (Par. 420)]. 

423. The Subject and the Object (when a Noun or Pro- 
noun) may be enlarged by 

(1) An Adjective. 

(2) A Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case. 

(3) A Noun in Apposition. 

(4) A Participle or a Participial Phrase. 

(5) A Prepositional Phrase. 

(6) An Infinitive Phrase. 

(7) An Adjective Clause. 

424. The Subject and the Object (when an Infinitive or 
Gerund) may be enlarged by 

(1) An Object. 

(2) A Prepositional or other Phrase. 



REVIEW OF ANALYSIS 217 

425. The Predicate may be enlarged by 

(1) An Adverb. 

(2) A Prepositional Phrase. 

(3) A Phrase with the Nominative Absolute. 

(4) An Objective of Time, Space, or Measurement 

(5) An Adverbial Clause. 

426. Sentences are Simple, Complex or Compound. 

427. A Simple Sentence is one which has only one Subject 
and Predicate. 

428. ' A Complex Se ntence is one which, besides a Principal 
Subject and"Predicate, contains one or more Sub-ordinate Clauses 
which have Subjects and Predicates of their own.' — Mason. 

429. Sub-ordinate Clauses are divided into 

(1) Noun Clauses. 

(2) Adjective Clauses. 

(3) Adverbial Clauses. 

430. A Noun Clause may be in a Complex Sentence 

(1) The Subject. 

(2) The Complement of the Predicate. 

(3) The Object. 

(4) In Apposition. 

431. An A^ective Clause always qualifies some Noun or 
Pronoun. 

432. An Adverbial Clause may be 

(1) Of Time. 

(2) Of Place. 
(8) Of Manner. 

(4) Of Degree. 

(5) Of Cause. 

(6) Of Purpose. 

(7) Of Consequence. 

(8) Of Condition. 

433. A Co mpound Sentenc e is one which consists of t^<\ ex. 
more Co-oromate Sentences. 



2i8 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



434. Conjunctions which join Co-ordinate Sentences, Clauses 
(or Words), are called Co-ordinating Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions which introduce Sub-ordinate Clauses are called 
Snb-ordinating Conjunctions. 

Miscellaneous Simple, Complex and Compound Sentences 

for Analysis. 

Opinion in good men is bat knowledge in the making. 

Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to 
conscience above all liberties. 

A good book is the precious life-blood of a master-spirit, embalmed and 
treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life. 

Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 

Loveliness 
Needs not the foreign aid of ornament. 

All men think all men mortal but themselves. 

Soothed with the sound the king grew vain. 

Through the long night watches 

May Thine angels spread 
Their white wings above me 

"Watching round my bed. 

Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting. 
E'en from the tomb the voice of nature cries. 

I knew a very wise man that believed that if a man were permitted to 
make all the ballads he need not care who should make the laws of a nation. 

I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. 
Where ox-lips and the nodding violet grows. 

Learning hath gained most by those books by which the printers have 
lost. 

The street was wet with the falling snow, 
And the woman's feet were weary and slow. 

The breaking waves dashed high 

On a stem and rock-bound coast. 
And the woods against a stormy sky 

Their giant \)ianel[ie& \a^^^ 



REVIEW OF ANALYSIS 219 



Manj flocks were on the hills, but thou wert owned by none, 
And thy mother from thy side for evermore was gone. 

He was the loved of all, yet none 
O'er his low bed may weep. 

The well-springs that supply 

The streams are seldom spent. 
For clouds of rain come by 

To pay them what they lent. 

I thought that you 
Could tell your mother what good cats do. 

She was afraid to speak, 
Lest she might waken one she loved 
Far better than her life. 

Tell father when he comes from work 
I said * Good night * to him. 

They say it was a shocking sight 
After the field was won. 

What peaceful hours I once enjoyed ! 

How sweet * their memory still 1 
But they have left an aching void 

No world can ever fill. 

Stay then at home and do not go 
Or fly abroad to seek for woe. 

If thou dislik'st the piece thou lightest on first. 
Think that, of all that I have writ, the worst. 

The more I look the more I prove 
There's still more cause why I should love. 

Two of a thousand things are disallowed — 
A rich man lying and a poor man proud t 

No man is wiser for his learning ; it may administer matter to work in, 
or objects to work upon, but wit and wisdom are bom with a man. 

When one is past another care we have ; 
Thus woe succeeds a woe as wave a wave. 

Where my Julia's lips do smile, 
There's the land or cherry isle, 
Whose plantations fully show 
All the year where cherries grow. 



220 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Think you mid all the mighty sum 
Of things for ever speaking, 
That nothing of itself will come 
But we must still be seeking ? 

When in from school I ran 

He toddles to the door, 
And screams and shouts with fun 

Till he tumbles on the floor. 

Who made me long to hem and sew, 
That quickly I might handy grow, 
And make some pretty clothes to show 

My dolly ? 

He stood alone by the window within, 
For he felt that his soul was stained with sin. 
And his mother could hear him sob and cry 
Because he had told her that wicked lie. 

The first that died was little Jane : 

In bed she moaning lay 
Till God relieved her of her pain, 

And then she went away. 

The spider turned him [= himself] round about. 

And went into his den, 
For well he knew the silly fly 

Would soon come back again. 

And parted thus they rest who played 

Beneath the same green tree, 
Whose voices mingled as they prayed 

Around one parent knee. 

'Tis not the curses that come from the poor or from anybody that hurt 
me because they come from them, but because I do something ill against 
them that deserves God should curse me for it. 

Books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a potency of life 
in them to be as active as the soul was whose progeny they are. 

Who kills a man kills a reasonable creature, God's image ; but he who 
destroys a good book kills reason itself. 

We boast our light, but if we look not wisely on the sun itself, it<Eftnites 
us into darkness. 

Though all the winds of doctrine were let loose to play upon the earth, 
so [ = if] truth be in the field we do injuriously by licensing and prohibiting 
to misdoubt her strength. 



REVIEW OF ANALYSIS 221 

The sun above the mountain's head, 

A freshening lustre mellow 

Through all the long green fields has spread, 

His first sweet evening yellow. 

One impulse from a vernal wood 
May teach you more of man, 
Of moral evil and of good 
Than all the sages can. 

Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just, 
And he but naked though locked up in steel 
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. 

Live while you live, the epicure would say, 
And seize the pleasures of the present day. 

He lives long that lives well, and time misspent is not lived but lost. 

To thine own self be true. 
And it must follow as the night the day 
Thou canst not then be false to any man. 

Sound the loud timbrel o'er Egypt's dark sea 1 
Jehovah has triumphed, his people are free. 

There was no land on earth 
She loved like that dear land, although she 
Owed it not her birth. 

The best notion we can conceive of God may be that He is to the creation 
what the soul is to the body. 

Waking or asleep, 

Thou of death must deem 
Things more true and deep 

Than we mortals dream. 

Whether a measure of government be right or wrong is no matter of 
fact, but a mere affair of opinion on which men may, as they do, dispute 
and wrangle without end. 

Trust men and they will be true to you ; treat them greatly and they 
will show themselves great. 

To speak agreeably to him with whom we deal is more than to speak in 
good words, or in good order. 



222 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



The common Lord of all that move, 

From whom thy being flowed, 
A portion of His boundless love 
On that poor worm bestowed. 

Our doubts are traitors 
And make us lose the good we oft might win 
By fearing to attempt. 

Glory is like a circle in the water 

Which never ceaseth to enlarge itself 

Till, by broad spreading, it disperse to naught. 

I dare do all that may become a man, 
Who dares do more is none. 

Providence seems impartial in the dispensation which bestows xiohes 
apon one and a contempt of riches upon another. 



223 



PART IV. 

HIS TOBY AND DEBIVATION. 

HISTORY. 

435. The Aryans. — Many, many centuries ago, long before 
history began to be written, a nation whom we call the Aryans 
lived in Central Asia. After they had lived together for a very 
great while, bands of them began to wander away from the old 
home. One band pressed to the south-east and settled in the 
countries now named Persia and India. Other bands spread 
westward and occupied nearly aU the countries of Europe. A 
troop which divided at the north of the Adriatic Sea settled in 
Greece and Italy. Another troop, the Kelts, occupied the British 
Islands, Gaul, and part of Spain. From them are descended the 
Welsh, the Highlanders of Scotland, the Irish and the Bretons 
of to-day. The Kelts were followed, and in some cases conquered, 
by the Teutons, from whom come the English, the Germans, and 
the Scandinavians. The Teutons were followed by the Slaves,^ 
from whom are descended the Eussians, the Poles, and some of 
the other inhabitants of Eastern Europe. 

436. The Aryan Languages.— We get our knowledge of the 
parent stock by comparing the languages of the nations which 
have sprung from it. Learned men, on examining the Aryan 
(or Indo-European 2) tongues, have discovered that there are 
certain words found in all or nearly all of them. These words 
must therefore have been in use before the dispersion, and the 
things which they name and the actions which they denote must 
have been famihar to the original people. Their language ' con* 

* The word Slaves does not here mean bondmen. 

* Called Indo-European because spoken in Indlaand Europe. 



224 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



tained words for all the common relations of life — father, mother, 
brother, sister, son, and daughter. . . • The connections by 
marriage had their terms ; there was a name for the daughter- 
in-law, ** she who belonged to the son,** for the father-in-law, and 
for the brother in-law. . . . The house existed, not the cave or 
hole in the rock ; and it had doors, not the half-underground 
passage of the Siberians. The people had sheep and herds, the 
tendance of which was their main employment ; and of agricul- 
ture we see the beginnings — the knowledge of some one grain, 
perhaps barley. They had horses to drive (not to ride), and 
goats, dogs, and bees ; from the honey they made a sweet drink ; 
they made clothing of the wool of the sheep and the skins of 
beasts. They had to guard against the wolf, the bear, and the 
snake. . . . They dressed their food at the fire, and they were 
acquainted with soup. They also knew and could work with 
three metals — gold, silver, and copper. They used in battle the 
sword and the bow. They made boats, but they knew not the 
sea. They could reckon up to a hundred, and they divided their 
time by months according to the moon. ... In religion they 
had no clear term for God, but seem to have personified tlie sky 
as the Heaven-father, the source of hght and hfe. Certainly 
such a race as this differed widely from the infinite number of 
savage races which even now occupy the world.* ^ 

437. Orimm*s Law. — Though, as we have seen, there are 
many words common to the various Aryan languages, we must 
not expect to find them in exactly the same form in all the lan- 
guages in which they occur. Differences of chmate and of sur- 
roundings have, in the course of ages, caused differences in 
speech. The inhabitants of a warm country, for example, are 
disinclined to take trouble, and gradually drop the harsh sounds 
which require an effort to make. This will explain why Italian 
is more liquid than German. Dr. Jacob Grimm it was who first 
stated clearly what sound in one Aryan language corresponded 
to any given sound in another Aryan language — in other words, 
it was he who laid down Grimm's Law. A few examples will 
show the correspondence of sounds spoken oL 



HISTORY. 



225 



Greek* 

(p^rrip (phrater) 

oMs ^odous) 
Genitwe i-Bivr os 

(o-dont-os) 
h6o (duo) 
T/>€is, rpi-wv (treis, 

tri-6n) 



Latin, 


English, 


Oerman, 


frater 


brother 


Bruder 


dens, Oenitwe 
dent-is 


tooth 


Zahn 


duo 

tres, trinm 


two 
three 


zwei 
drei 



Welsh, 

brawd (Irish bra< 

thair) 
dant 



dau 

tri 



On examining the first set of words it will be seen 

(1) That <f> (ph) in Greek corresponds to / in Latin, and to 5 in 
English, German, and Irish. [These are all somids made with the lips.] 

(2) That r (t) in Greek corresponds to ^ in Latin, to th in English 
and Irish, and to d in German. [These are all somids made with the 
teeth.] 

An examination of the other sets of words will show similar results. 

438. The English. — When we first hear of the English (who, 
it will be remembered, belong to the Teutonic branch of the 
Aryan family), they were living together in the north-west of 
Germany. They were of the same blood and spoke the same 
language as a great many other tribes that inhabited the lands 
north of the Rhine, and from the tribes that stayed on the con- 
tinent are descended the Germans of to-day. 

439. The Kelts. — ^When we first hear of Britain it was 
peopled by Kelts. The Romans conquered the southern part of 
the island and held it for three centuries, much as we now 
hold India, When they withdrew, the unprotected country was 
invaded by band after band of the English, and each band settled 
down in the lands which it had won. Thus in the course of 
about a hundred and fifty years the whole of the eastern half of 
south Britain came under Enghsh rule, the older inhabitants 
being killed or driven westward. 

440. * Saxon * and * Anglo-Saxon.* — The Saxons were the first of the 
EngUsh tribes to invade Britain, and the Britons therefore called all 
the invaders Saxons : the Welsh even to this day call the Enghsh 
Saeson, The common name for Angles, Saxons and Jutes was Euc^ltvAl\.\ 
we should therefore be careful not to caX\. \^ieai «J^. '^^'^wi&^*0QaiO<i«£Si% 



2i& LONGMANS* SCHOOL GRAAfMAR 



the name of only one tribe. To call all the English Saxons is like calling 
all the Jews Levites. Sometimes our fore&thers are called AnglO' 
Saxons, and that is not always wrong, bat the right use of the term is 
hard to learn, and there is no advantage in using it. There is, on the 
other hand, a distinct advantage in applying the term to the language 
of the invaders. That language was English as much as oar own ; in 
fact our English is to the English of the invaders as the oak of to-day 
is to the sapling of centuries ago. It, however, saves time to call the 
earliest English known to us Anglo-Saxon, but it should always be 
remembered that when we speak of Anglo-Saxon we do not mean a 
different language from our own, but only the oldest form of our own.^ 

441. Inflected and ITn-inflected languages. — When a lan- 
guage like Latin is compared with a language like English, some 
striking differences are seen. Take, for example, the Noun 
dominus, a lord, and the Adjective bonns, good. When these 
are declined we have : — 

Bon-us domin-uB, a good lord [Subject]. 

Bon-i domin-i, a good lord*B. 

Bon-o domin-o, to or for a good lord, 

Bon-nm domin-uxn, a good lord [Object]* 

Bon-e domin-e, good lord. 

Bon-o domin-o, by, with or from a good lord, 

Bon-i domin-i, good lords. 

Bon-omm domin-onim, good lordM\ 

Take again the comparison of an Adjective :— 
Difficil-is, difficult. 
Difficil-ior, more difficult, 
Difficil-limus, most difficult. 

Take again the conjugation of a Verb :— 

Am-abam, I was loving, 
Am-abas, thou wast loving, 
Am-abat, he was loving. 
Am-abamus, we were loving, 
Am-abatis, you were loving. 
Am-abant, they were loving, 

» Welsh me&na foreigner. That was the name given by the Invaders to the Brlton8. The 
Germans of to-day similarly caU Italy Welsch-land, the land of the Welsh. The name by 
which the Welsh call themselves is Cymru (pronounced Klmr^), a word seen in Cbmdrfe 
and Cumber-land. 



HISTOR V 227 



These examples will show that in Latin different relations of 
the same word are shown by terminations or inflections added to 
the root, or fixed part of the word, whereas in English different 
relations are generally shown by the addition of separate words. 
Latin is therefore said to be an inflected language, but the 
English of the present day is to a large extent uninflect3d. 

442. Anglo-Saxon inflected. — Anglo-Saxon (as for conveni- 
ence we call the oldest form of English) was an inflected lan- 
guage. The Noun dceg, day, for example, was declined thus :-— 

dseg, a day [Subject]. 

dseg-es, day'%. 

dseg-e, to or for a day. 

dseg, a day [Object]. 

dseg-e, by or with a day. 

dagas, days. 

dag-a, dayn', &c. 

443. Dead and Living Language^. — Languages which are no 
longer spoken are said to be dead. Greek, as we find it in the 
Iliad, is dead^ though there is a modem form of Greek called 
Eomaic. Similarly Latin, as we find it in the JEneid, is dead, 
though Itahan, French, Spanish and Portuguese are little more 
than modem forms of Latin. 

All hving things undergo constant change. No living flower, 
tree, horse, or man will be exactly the same to-morrow as to- 
day. Like other hving things, languages, too, undergo constant 
change. Old words drop out of use, new words are introduced, 
some words alter in meaning, and inflections are ever wearing 
away. 

444. Examples of Changes in languages. — To show how 
a language changes in course of time, a few verses of the 
Gospel of John are here given, first in Latin and then in 
ItaHan and French, which (as has already been said) are modem 
forms of Latin. 



228 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Latin, 


ItaUan, 


French. 


English, 


In principio 


Nel principio 


Au commence- 
ment 


In the beginning 


ille Senno erat, 


la Parola era, 


6tait la Parole ; 


was the Word ; 


et ille Sermo erat 


e la Parola era 


la Parole 6tait 


and the Word was 


apud Deum, 


appo Iddio, 


avec Dieu, 


with God, 


et ille Sermo 


e la Parola 


et la Parole 


and the Word 


erat Deus. 


era Die. 


6tait Dieu. 


was God. 


Hio Sermo erat 


Essa era 


Elle 6tait 


The same was 


in principio 


nel principio 


au commence- 
ment 


in the beginning 


Bpud Denm. 


appo Iddio. 


avec Dieu. 


with God. 


(hnnia 


Ogni cosa 


Toutes choses 


All things 


sunt facta 


d stata fatta 


ont M faites 


were made 


per hiinc Sermo- 


per essa : 


par elle : 


by him, 


et absque eo 


e senza essa 


et sans elle 


and without him 


nihil quod sit 


niuna cosa fatta 


rien de ce qui a 


/ was not anything 


factum 




^t^fait 


made that was 


est factum.* 


d stata fatta. 


n'a M. 


^ made. 



To show, more specially, how English has changed, a part of 
the Lord's Prayer is given in the speech of three different 
periods : — 



Anglo-Saxon, 
A.D. 890. 



Wiclifs Translation, 
A.D. 1380. 



Aidhorized Version^ 
A.D. 1611. 



Fseder ure 

thu the eart in heofen- 

um; 
Si thin nama gehalgod 
to-be-come thin rice ; 
geweorthe thin willa 
on eorthan 
swa swa on heofenum. 



Oure fadir 

that art in hevenes ; 

hallowid be thi name ; 

thy kingdom come to ; 

be thy will don 

in erthe 

as in hevene. 



Our father 

which art in heaven ; 

hallowed be thy name ^ 
thy kingdom come ; 
thy will be done 
in earth 
as [it is] in heaven. 



The changes which have taken place in English during a 
thousand years are too many and too great to be dealt with in a 
book like this, but a little must be said about the introduction of 



* The order of the Latin words has been changed to correspond with the order of the 
Italian. The Latin order is :— 

'Id principio erat Sermo ille, et Sermo ille erat apnd Denm, eratqne ille Sermo Dens. Hie 
Sermo erat in principio apnd Denm. Omnia per hnnc Sermonem &cta sunt et absque eo 
factum est nihil quod factum sit.' 

The order of the words in the last sentence of the Prench has also been changed^ 



HISTORY 229 

new words, and about the light which the old grammar throws 
upon the grammar of the present. 

445. Keltic Words. — If we look at an English dictionary which 
shows whence the words come we shall find that many of them 
are borrowed from other languages. If, however, we examine 
the oldest EngUsh we shall find that it contains no foreign 
words. A glance at our history will explain the difference. The 
first people with whom our forefathers came in contact after 
reaching Britain were of course the Britons, but as the feeling 
between the two races was one of deadly hatred, they had hardly 
any dealings with each other. It is, however, probable that some 
of the less warlike Welsh remained in the English districts and 
and it is certain that some of the English took unto themselves 
Welsh wives. The result of this limited intercourse was that 
the invaders learned some, but not many, words from the old 
inhabitants. If a man now ' calls for Kis coat^ or tells of the 
basket of fish he has caught, or the cart he employs on his land, 
or of the ^pranks of his youth, or the prancing of his horse, or 
declares that he was happy when a gowns-majo. at Oxford, or that 
his servant mperty' ^ he is using words which his ancestors learned 
a thousand years ago from the Britons. 

446. Latin Words (First Period). — During three centuries of 
intercourse, on the whole friendly, the Britons got a good many 
words from the Romans. The Welshman of to-day still calls a 
book, llyfr (L. liber), a church, eglwys (L. ecclesia), a window, 
ffenestr {1j, fenestra) , and a sin, pechod (L. peccatum). Among 
the words which the Enghsh learned from the Kelts were, natu- 
rally, some which the Kelts had themselves learned from the 
Romans. 

447. Latin Words (Second Period).— In the seventh century 
the EngUsh learned some Latin words directly. Missionaries sent 
from Rome brought Christianity into the country, and for every- 
thing new which they taught, their converts required a new (that 
is, a Latin) name. If we examined all our religious terms we could 

' Dayibs, Proceeding* of the Philological Society, 1865. The words printed in italics are 
of Keltic origin. 



230 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

find out soDietbing about the Teutonic heathenism, for the terms 
of native origin would show the ideas famihar to the English be- 
fore conversion, while the Latin terms would show the ideas 
learned &om the missionaries. We should find, for example, 
that the old religion had gods, but no trinity ; heaven, but no 
angels ; hell, but no devils ; and worship, but no bishop, priest, 
preacher, altar, candle^ clmlice, or mass. 

448. Norse Words. — In 787 the Northmen (Norsemen, Danes, 
or Scandinavians) began to trouble England, and for the next 
two hundred and fifty years their dreaded ships were ever and 
again seen lying off the coasts or saihng up the rivers. At first 
they came for plunder; then they began to settle down,* and 
Alfred was forced to divide the country with them ; finally, Danish 
kings won the throne. The invasion must have considerably 
added to the language, but it is not easy to pick out all the new 
words, as Norse and Enghsh were akin in blood and speech. 
Perhaps the most important additions are the Verb are and of 
as a sign of possession (* The book of John ' for * John's book '). 

449. Latin Words (Third Period).— Just as Northmen settled 
in England and gradually adopted the language of the Enghsh, 
other Northmen settled in France and learned the language of 
the French. In 1066 these Northmen (or Normans ^) conquered 
England. They of course spoke French, which, as has been 
seen, is only a modem form of Latin. It is probable that from 
William I. to Edward III (a period of three hundred years) no 
English king could speak English. French was, therefore, the 
language of the Court, of the nobles, and of all who desired to 
win favor at Court or from the nobles. French was also the 
language of Parhament, of the clergy, of lawyers, and of schools, 
but English remained the language of the common people, and 
gradually, as conquerors and conquered mixed, it prevailed. In 
1362 an Act was passed requiring Enghsh to be used in the law 
courts, because, it stated, * the French tongue is much unknown 
in England, so that suitors have no knowledge or understanding of 

* Wherever we find a place ending in by (as Derby, Whitby, Grimsby, Rngby, Kaseby), 
we may feel sure there was a Norse settlement. By meant twcn ; we bATe the word stUl in 
by-lawty literally the ' laws of a town.' 

* Northmen = Northmaus = Normans. 



NORMAN INFLUENCE 231 



what is Baid for or against them.' English had prevailed, but it 
had taken into itself a large number of French words. 

450. Kind of Words due to the Normans. — If we looked at 
the nature of the words added to the English language by the 
Normans * we might almost reconstruct our history, so far as it 
turns upon the Norman Conquest. . . . Thus we should confidently 
conclude that the Norman was the ruling race, from the notice- 
able fact that all the words of dignity, state, honor, and pre- 
eminence, with one remarkable exception (to be adduced pre- 
sently), descend to us from them — sovereign^ scepter, throne, 
realm, royalty, homage, prince, duke, count (earl, indeed, is Scan- 
dinavian, though he must borrow his countess from the Norman), 
chancellor, treasurer , palace, castle, hall, dome, and a multitude 
more. At the same time the one remarkable exception of king 
would make us, even did we know nothing of the actual facts, 
suspect that the chiefs of this ruhng race came in, not upon a 
new title, not as overthrowing a former dynasty, but claiming 
to be in the rightful line of its succession ; that the true con- 
tinuity of the nation had not, in fact any more than in word, been 
entirely broken, but survived, in due time to assert itself anew. 
And yet, while the statelier superstructure of the language, 
almost all articles of luxury, all having to do with the chase, with 
chivalry, with personal adornment, are Norman throughout : 
with the broad basis of the language, and therefore of the hfe, it 
is otherwise. The great features of nature, sun, moon, and stars, 
water, and fire ; the divisions of time ; three out of the four 
seasons, spring, summer, and winter; the features of natural 
scenery, the words used in earliest childhood, the simpler 
emotions of the mind ; all the prime social relations, father, 
mother, husband, wife, son, daughter, brother, sister— these are 
of native growth and unborrowed. Palace and castle may have 
reached us from the Norman, but to the Saxon we owe far 
dearer names, the hxmse, the roof, the home, the hearth. His 
hoard too, and often probably it was no more, has a more 
hospitable sound than the table of his lord. His sturdy arms 
turn the soil ; he is the hoor, the hind, the churl ; or if his 
Norman master has a name for him, it is one which on his lips 



232 LONGMANS* SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



becomes more and more a title of opprobrium and contempt, the 
villain. The instruments nsed in cultivating the earth, the 
flail, the plough, the share, the rake, the scythe, the harrow, the 
wain, the sickle, the spade, are expressed in his language ; so 
too the main products of the earth, as wheat, rye, oats, here, 
grass, flax, hay, straw, weeds ; and no less the names of domestic 
animals. You will remember, no doubt, how in the matter of 
these Wamba, the Saxon jester in ** Ivanhoe," plays the 
philologer, having noted that the names of almost all animals, 
so long as they are alive, are Saxon, but when dressed and 
prepared for food become Norman — a fact, he would intimate, 
not very wonderful ; for the Saxon hind had the charge and 
labor of tending and feeding them, but only that they might 
appear on the table of his Norman lord. Thus ox, steer, cow, 
are Saxon, but beef Norman ; calf is Saxon, but veal Norman ; 
sheep is Saxon, but mutton Norman ; so it is severally with 
swine and pork, deer and venison, fowl and pullet. Bacon, the 
only flesh which perhaps ever came within his reach, is the 
single exception. Putting all this together, with much more of 
the same kind, which has only been indicated here, we should 
certainly gather, that while there are manifest tokens preserved 
in our language of the Saxon having been for a season an 
inferior, and even an oppressed, race, the stable elements of 
EngUsh life, however overlaid for a while, had still made good 
their claim to be the soUd groundwork of the after nation as of 
the after language; and to the justice of this conclusion all 
other historic records, and the present social condition of 
England, consent in bearing witness.' ^ 

451. Latin Words (Fourth Period).— In the middle of the 
fifteenth century Constantinople was taken by the Turks, and 
many of the learned Greeks who lived in that city were driven to 
seek a home elsewhere. They wandered about in search of 
work, and some of them found employment as teachers of their 
ancient tongue. It was a time of great ignorance ; the authors 
of Greece were quite, and those of Eome were nearly, forgotten. 
When, therefore, these exiles from the East began to tell of the 

> ISBNGH, On the Study of Word*. 



HISTOR Y 



233 



beauty and wisdom of the old writers they found eager listeners, 
and there began in Italy a Bevival of Learning. The movement 
gradually spread till it reached England. In the days of the 
Tudors there were many English scholars filled with zeal for the 
classics ; they found nothing in their own language to be com- 
pared to them, and they thought it incapable of expressing much 
of what they had to say. They tried to enrich it by adding to it 
thousands of Latin words, though some were found to defend 
their mother tongue against the charge of poverty. One such 
says that he heard all around him such words as ' common^ vices, 
envy, malice^e\eu virtue, study, justice, pity, mercy, coni' 
passion, profit, commodity, color, grace, favor, acceptance, '^ 2^X1(1 
he asks whither had been banished ^ those words which our 
forefathers used for these new-fangled ones.' 

452. * Doublets.' — Some of the Latin words introduced into 
English by the revivers of learning had already in a somewhat 
different form been introduced by the Normans, and thus it 
comes to pass that we have a number of doublets — pairs of words 
from the same root, as 



Latin root. 


Word derived directly 
from the Latin, 


Word derived from 

the Latin through 

the French. 


captivus 

castigare 

castellum 




captive 

castigate 

castle 


caitiff 

chastise 

chateau 


invidia 




invidious 


envious 


lectio 
(Qen, lection 


•is) • 


lection 


lesson 



453. Proportion of Native and Foreign Words in English.— 

Though English has received many words &om Latin, and 
some from Greek and other languages, words of native origin far 
outnumber all the rest. It has been estimated that, taking all 
the words in the dictionary, sixty out of every hundred are of 
native origin, thirty of Latin, five of Greek, while the remaining 
five come from some of the many other languages whence we 
have taken scattered words. But as nearly all the words most 
often used are native, the proportion of native words in any 



234 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



author is considerably larger than in the dictionary. Thus out 

of every hundred words in 

Are ofnaiwe origin. 

Chancer, ' Nonnes Preestes Tale * . . . .98 

Spenser, ' Faerie Queene,' bk. ii. canto 7 . • 86 
New Testament, authorized version, John, chaps, i, 

iv. xviL •.....•. 96 

Shakespeare, * Othello,' act v 89 

Milton, * Paradise Lost,* bk. vi 80 

Johnson, Preface to Dictionary .... 72 

Tennyson, * In Memoriam,' first twenty poems . 89 

Longfellow, * Miles Standish ' 87 

It is easy to pick out passages which contain hardly any 
foreign words ; for example : — 

Like the leaves of the forest * when summer is green, 
That host with their banners at sunset were seen ; 
Like the leaves of the forest when autumn hath blown, 
That host, on the morrow, lay withered and strown. 

For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast, 
And breathed on the face of the foe as he passed ; 
And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill, 
And their hearts but once heaved, and for ever grew still. 

And there lay the steed, with his nostril all wide, 
But through it there rolled not the breath of his pride ; 
And the foam of his gasping lay white on the turf, 
And cold as the spray of the rock-beating surf. — Byron, 

454. Inflections: Number of Nouns. — A few words must now 
be said about the light which the grammar of the past throws 
upon the grammar of the present. 

In the earliest English the Plural endings were as, an, u, a 
and 0, of which the most common was an» After the Conquest 
the ending as began to prevail over the others, because the French 
Plurals were formed in s, and when the Normans began to speak 
English they naturally employed for the Plural the ending 
which most resembled their own. By the thirteenth century we 
Bnd. the English Plural endings reduced to two, es and en. Of 

' The words printed m italoa ctxe ot 1otc\^ oiA:^^ 



HISTORY 235 



these, es waxed stronger day by day till it became the only living 
way * of forming the Plural. In Chaucer (1344-1400) we con- 
stantly find it as a separate syllable ; thus, 

And with his strem-e« dryeth in the grev-6« 
The silver drop-e« hongyng on the leev-e«.* 

Knight's Tale, 11. 637-8. 

Even so late as Spenser (1552-1599) -es was not uncommonly 
used; thus, 

In wine and oil they wash his wound-es wide. 

Faerie Queene, I., v., 17. 

Of the former use of -en we still have traces in ox-en, kine^ 
children, brethren, eyne [=eyes; eenin Scotland], s/ioow [= shoes], 
fone [=foes ; very often found in Spenser], and hosen [see Daniel 
iii , 21]. 

455. Plurals formed by Change of yowel. — There is in 
language what the learned call assimilation — a tendency for one 
sound to become like another sound near it. This tendency has 
caused the change of vowel in the Plural of such words as tooth, 
mouse, foot, man. It is very likely that foot, for example, origin- 
ally had a Plural foot-is, and that after a while the s was dropped, 
leaving foot-L Gradually the sound 00 would be changed to re- 
semble the sound i, and thus we should get feet-i, shortened after a 
time to feet Similarly mann-is became mann-i, menn-i, men. In 
German (where Mann retains its ending -er) the vowel is changed 
BO that the Plural is Maenn-er (generally written Mdnn-er), 

456. Gender. — In the languages which have grammatical 
gender, the gender of a Noun does not depend merely upon the 
sex of the thing named. In Latin, for example, mons, a moun- 
tain is Masculine, insula, an island, is Feminine, and animal^ an 
animal, is Neuter. Similarly in German, Weib, woman, is 
Neuter, Nacht, night, is Feminine, and Mdnnchen, little man, is 
Neuter. Though modem English has no grammatical gender, 
the oldest English had. Thus freodom, freedom, was Masculine, 
gretung, greeting, was Feminine, and cycen, chicken, was Neuter. 

* That is, the only way which would be applied. \a tlc^ lSai^gi&s^'&^'Qx&. 

• *JiDd with Ms fltreama drlsa la the gro^rea t\xe %\W«t ^cco^lwMWfrsi^^'*'^''^^'*^^^*"^"** 



236 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



The difference between the MascoUne and Feminine terminations 
was, however, not very marked in some cases, and miless a 
speaker pronounced his words clearly it might be hard to say 
whether he was talking of a male or of a female. When the 
terminations dropped off the difficulty would be still greater ; so 
we find that after the Norman Conquest grammatical gender died 
out and our present simple plan took its place. 

457. Case. — The oldest English had six Cases— the Nomina- 
tive, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative and Instrumental. 
We now have no trace of the old Case-endings except in the 
Possessive. The apostrophe before the 5 (as in * Man's book ') 
shows that the letter e ha3 been omitted. Eb was in Anglo- 
Saxon the Possessive ending of some Masculine and Neuter 
Nouns, but not of Feminine Nouns. So late as the time of 
Chaucer we find some Feminine Possessives without '5 ; as * lady 
grace ' [= lady's grace]. We still have a trace of this, for while 
we call Sunday * Lord's day ' we call the 25th of March • lady 
(not ** lady's ") day.' 

458. Comparison of Adjectives. — In the Adjectives which are 
said to be irregularly compared we have some interesting traces 
of old inflections. 

(1) The r of the Comparative was originally 5, still seen in 
worse. The Superlative est was formed by adding t to the old 
Comparative es or se. 

(2) There is also an old Superlative ma, still seen in such 
words as fore-most [=fore-ma-est]. Thus most is a double 
Superlative, and not the same as the Adverb most. 

(3) The Comparatives and Superlatives of good, had, mtich 
or many are formed from Positives no longer in use ; thus, 

Better from 6a^=:good. 

Best-^bet-est, bet-st, best. 

Worse from weor, bad. 

Worst^weor-est. 

More (from mah):=mah-er. 

Most^mah-est 

(4) Last is merely a contraction oi latest, mA tiexl ^l u\jqiVvMX, 



HISTORY 23> 



459. Personal Pronouns (First and Second Persons).— In the 

oldest English I was Ic ^ with a guttural c (that is, a c sounded 
Uke the ch in loch). After the Norman Conquest gutturals 
gradually became mute { as in knight, gnaw) or were dropped (as 
in god-lie, Ic). In the fourteenth century we find both I and Ic 
{Ich or Ik) used ; thus, 

* I am holden,* q\iod be, * as hende as hounde is in kychyne ; 
Amonges my neighbores namelich such a name Ich haue.' ' 

Piers the Plowman, V., 261-2. 

The peasants in the south-west of England still use c/i for J ; 
and Shakespeare (1564-1616) makes Edgar in King Lear when 
pretending to be an ignorant countryman say 

C/t'ill [ = I will] not let you go, Zir, without vurther 'casion. . . . 
Ch'ill be plain with you. — King Lear, v., 6. 

Min and thin were the old Genitives, the -n being a Genitive 
ending. My and thy are formed from mine and thine like no 
from none and a from an. 

460. Personal Pronouns (Third Person).— It has already been 
stated (Par. 176) that what is now, for convenience, generally 
called the Personal Pronoun of the Third Person was originally 
a Demonstrative Pronoun. The old Accusative (Objective) Mas- 
cuhne was hine, the present Objective him being the Dative. The 
•w was a Dative sign, seen also in the-m and who-m. In A.-S., 
she was not a Pronoun at all, but (in the form seo) the Feminine 
of the Definite Article. The word for she was heo, which (either 
in that form or as %e) is by no means uncommon so late as 
* Piers the Plowman ; ' thus, 

Thanne had I wonder in my witt what womman it were 
That such wise wordes of holy writ shewed ; 
And asked hir on the heighe name, ar heo thennes geode 
What she were witterli, that wissed me so faire.' — I., 71-4. 

It is still used by the peasantry in some parts of England. 

* In German the Pronoun of the First Person Singular is still ich. 

* Piers the Flouman was first written about 1362. The liucs quoted mean *'*I am 
holden" [considered], quoth he, "as courteous as houod is In kitchen; amongst my nelgh> 
bors especially such a name I have.*'* 

* 'Then had I wonder in my mind what woman it was that such wise words out of ha\!i 
writ showed, and asked her, In the high name, ere she thence ni«qX. \ayi^^^\ia^»^Q^ 
truly that taught me so faire.* 



238 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

It was originally hit. The -Hs a Neuter ending seen also in 
w)\a-X» and ^^-t. The h is sometimes found so late as Chaucer ; 
thus, 

'Hit snewede in his hous of mete and drynke.^ 

Canterbury Tales, Prologue^ L 845, 

461. * Its.' — The old Genitive of hit was his, and this was 
used long after hit had become it. Its is quite a modem word. 
The earliest example of it yet found is in a book published in 
1598. It does not occur once in the English Bible, its office being 
fulfilled by his, her, thereof, or of it ; thus, 

The fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself. 

Qen. i., 11. 

The tree of life which bare twelve manner of fruits and yielded 
her fruit every month. — Bev. xxii., 2. 

And when the woman saw that the tree was good .... she took 
of the fruit thereof — Gen. iii., 6. 

And behold another beast . . . and it had three ribs in the mouth 
of it, between the teeth of it. — Dan. vii., 6. 

Its is not found in Bacon (1561-1626) or Spenser, and very 
rarely in Shakespeare. Milton (1608-1674) uses it sometimes, but 
often avoids it, as in 

His form had not yet lost 
All her original brightness. — Paradise Lost, I., 691-2. 

Even in the eighteenth century its was not used as freely as 

we now use it. Thus Pope (1688-1744) seems to avoid it in the 

lines, 

Where London's column, pointing to the skies. 

Like a tall bully lifts the head and lies. 

Moral Essays, III., 339-40. 

462. Personal Pronouns (Third Person).— T/t^i^, their, and 
them are the old Nominative, Genitive, and Dative Plural of the 
Definite Article. In A.-S. the Nominative and Accusative was 
hi, the Genitive hira, and the Dative him. By the fourteenth 

' ' It abounded in Ma house oi meait vodi ^^d!!C 



HISTORY 239 



century they bad almost replaced /ti, though hi (in various forms) 
is sometimes met ; as in 

In glotonye, God it wote, gon hii to bedde.* 

Fier9^ the Plowman, V., 43. 

But for their and them, hire and him (in various forms) were 
always used down to the time of Chaucer ; as, 

So pricketh hem nature in here corages.'* 

Canterbury Tales, Prologue, 1. 11, 

In the plays and novels of the last century we often find 'em for 
them ; as in, 

For let 'em be clumsy, or let *em be slim, 
Toung or ancient, I care not a feather. 

School for Scandal (1777), iii., 3. 

We still hear *em sometimes in informal talk. It is a contrac- 
tion, not of them, but of the old hem. 

463. Verbs — It has been seen (Par. 293) that we have now 
very few personal endings for Verbs. The personal endings 
were originally Pronouns * placed after and compounded with the 
verbal root ... as if we were to say love-I, love- thou, love-he, 
dc' ^ The ending of the First Person Singular was at first m 
(for mi) as still seen in a-m. The ending for the Second Person 
(now st) was once t, which can be traced back to ti, the same as 
the root of the Pronoun thou. The ending of the Third Person 
was th (the same as the root of the and that), but as far back as 
the Norman Conquest the s began to replace the th. The Present 
Indicative Plural ended in -th for all Persons, the Past Indica- 
tive and Subjunctive Plural ending in n. By Chaucer's time 
(when manyinflectionshad been lost, and some of the remainmg 
ones were confounded), the Plural for Indicative and Subjunctive 
had become en ; the n was gradually dropped, leaving an accen- 
ted e, and finally this was dropped also. Exactly the same thing 
happened with the Infinitive, which originally ended in an, and 
by Chaucer's time was en or e. Thus, 

* * In gluttony, God it knows, go they to bed.* 

" * So pricketh them nature in their \xeatU* * \xt.»"««cea« 



240 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Bischopes and bachelors, both'e maisters and doctonrs, 

That ha-n [PL] cure vnder Cryste, and crownyng in tokne 

And signe that thei shold-en [PI.] ahriv-en [Inf.] here paroschienes, 

Frech-en [Inf.] and prey for hem, and the pore fed-e [Inf] 

Ligg-en [PL] in London.* 

Piers the Plowman^ Prologue, 11. 87- 9L 



DERIVATION. 
Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes. 

464. Take the word in-com-pre-hens-ible ness. By stripping 
off the last syllable we get in-com-pre-hens-ihle. By now strip- 
ping off the first syllable we get com-pre-hens-ible ; and we can 
proceed in the same way till we have only hens left. This comes 
from a Latin Verb hend-ere ^ which is called the Boot of the word. 
In-y com-, and pre-, are called Prefixes ; -ihle and -ness are called 
Suffixes or Affixes ; and the whole word is said to be a Derivative. 

Similarly, in un-right-eoua-neas, the Root is right, un- is the Prefix, 
-eoua and -neaa are the Suffixes, and the whole ^ord the Derivative. 

465. A word which is formed by the joining together of two or 
more words is called a Compound, as hook-worm, quarter-master- 
general. 

Compound words are said to be formed by Composition, 

466. Derivatives are formed 

(1) By composition. 

(2) By the addition of Prefixes or Suffixes. 
(8) By internal changes. 

* * Bifihopa and bachelors, both masters and doctors that have core under Christ, and 
cn>wDiDg [the tonsure] in token and sign that they should shriye their parishioners, preaob 
mad pray for tbem, and the poor feed, liye in Lou^n.' 
' ObiMlete in olaaaio times. 



COMPOSITION 241 



Words Formed by Composition. 

Nouns. 

467, Nouns are formed by joining — 

(1) Noun and Noon ; as, hill-top, 

(2) Noun and Gerund ; as, hooTc-makmg, 

(3) Gerund and Noun ; as, walking -atich. 

(4) Noun and Adjective ; as, court-ma/rtial* 

(5) Adjective and Noun; as, blaclc-bird, 

(6) Noun and Verb ; as, wind-fall, 

(7) Verb and Noun; as, tell-tale. 

Exercise 212. 

Of what Parts of Speech are the follomng Nouns com- 
pounded? 

Bose-tree. Moon-light. Bail-way. Wind-miU. Cock-crowing. Bull- 
baiting. Carving-knife. Drawing-room. Princess-royal. Good-wiU. Blue- 
beU. Free-man. God-send. Scare-crow. Break -fast. Shoe-maker. 
Church-yard. Spinning-.wheel. Bound-head. Quick-silver. Piok-pocket. 
Stop-gap. Make-weight. 

Adjectives. 

468. Adjectives are formed by joining— 

(1) Noun and Adjective ; as, aea-green, pttrae-proud. 

(2) Noun and Participle ; as, sea-fa/ringt moth-eaten, heart* 

rendmg. 
(8) Adverb and Participle ; as, ilUlooMng, high-bom. 

(4) Adverb and Adjective ; as, out-spoken, tip-right, 

(5) Adjective and Adjective ; as, hlue-hlack, red-hoU 

(6) Adjective and Noun ; as, hare-foot, two-penny. 

Exercise 213. 

Of what Parts of Speech are the following Adjectives com- 
pounded ? 

Foot-sore. Sea-sick. Heart-broken. New-made. Head-strong. Child- 
like. Sea-girt. Time-serving. Ear-piercing. Spirit-stirring. Well-bred. 
Earth-bom. Thimder-struck. Awe-struck. HomA-uak^ Tvstx^^-^^^Ss^utsQi.- 
Al-mighty. In-bred. 



242 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



Verbs. 

469. Verbs are formed by joining — 

(1) Noun and Verb ; as, way-lay, baclc-hite. 

(2) Adjective and Verb; as, white-wash, fuUfiL 

(3) Adverb and Verb; 9A, fore-tell, cross -exa^mme, 

(4) Verb and Adverb ; as, doff [ = do + off J, don [ = do + on], 

dout * [ « do + out]. 

Exercise 214. 

Of what Parts of Speech are the following Verba com- 
pounded ? 

Brow-beat. Black-lead [a stove]. Gain-say. Under-stand. Cross* 
question. Youch-safe. 

Adverbs. 

470. Adverbs are formed by joining — 

(1) Noun and Noun ; as, length-ways, 

(2) Noun and Adjective ; as, head-foremost. 

(3) Adjective and Noun ; as, mean-time, 

(4) Adverb and Adverb ; as, where-as, 

(5) Adverb and Preposition ; ^^here^-upon, 

(6) Adjective and Adverb ; as, no-where. 

Exercise 215. 

Of what Parts of Speech are the following Adverbs com- 
pounded ? 

Side-ways. Al-ways. Like-wise. Some-times. Straight -way. Thence- 
forward. Where-by. Where -of. There-of. Some-how. Mean-while. 
Here-after. 

Words formed by the Addition of Prefixes 

AND Suffixes. 

I. Prefixes of English Origin. 

471. Nouns are formed by the Prefixes — 

Mis- (vTTong) ; as, mis-deed, mis-trust, mis-taTce, 

VU' (the opposite of) ; as, un-truth, wn-rest, v/n-beUef, 

' Jhutf to put out (as a fire). * Here \& VX/sicM «. ^svoxvoranAu 



ENGLISH SUFFIXES 243 



472. Acyectiyes are formed by the Prefixes — 

A- (on) ; as, a-lme, a-foot, a-weary. 

For- (quite, utterly) ; a,Bffor-lom, 

Ifn- (not) ; as, un-truey tm-happy, un-tuiae, 

473. Verbs are formed by the Prefixes — 

A- (out of, from, away ; now used sometimes only to strengthen 

the Verb) ; as, a-rise, a-waJce^ a-rouse. 
Be- (1) makes an Intransitive Verb Transitive; as, be-apeaJcj 
he-moan, bestride, 

(2) Makes Transitive Verbs out of Adjectives or Nouns ; as, 
be-dirriy be-friend, he-dew, 

(3) Strengthens the meaning ; as, be-taJce, bestow. 

For- (through, thorough ; used to strengthen the meaning of the 

Verb) ; q,b, for-bearj for-bid, for-get, for-give. 
Mis- (wrongly) ; as, misspell^ mis-lay, mis-lead, mis-taJce, 
Un- (the opposite of) ; as, un-do, un-bind, un-fasten, v/n-lock. 
With- (against, back) ; as, with-draw, with-hold. 
En- (forming Verbs) ; as, en-dea/r, en-throne, en-trap. 



Exercise 216. 

1. Form Nouns by placing Prefixes before : — Happiness, rest, dress, hap, 
trust, conduct 

2. Form Adjectives by placing Prefixes before: — Foot, even, lorn, fair, 
kind. 

3. Form Verbs by placing Prefixes before :—Bide, wake, rise, fall, speak, 
ttride, grime, numb, cloud, dazzle, believe, give, bind, tie, stand, twine^ hold* 



II. Snffixes of English Origin. 
474. Nouns have Suffixes :— 

(1) Denoting Agent or Doer — 

-er, -ar, or -or ; as, bak-er, sing-er, begg-a/r, U-ar, saM-or, 
-iter (formerly a Feminine suffix) ; as, spinster, maltster^ 
tapster, 

(2) Denoting an Instrument — 

-el, or -le ; as, Bhov-el^ gird-le, aiKuU-\e VJit^xa. iVvoo^* 



244 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

(3) Forming Abstract Nouns — 

-dom; as, wis-dom, Icing dom, free-dom. 

-hood, -head ; as, boy-hood^ man-hood, Ood-head, 

-ing ; as, hunt ing, read-ing, 

-ness ; as, good nesa, wedk-ness. 

-red ; as, hat-red, 7cind-red. 

-ihip; SkSy friend-shipj fellow-8hip, worship (from worth), 

-th, -t, or -d ; as, weal-th, heal-th, dea/r-th, tru-th, bir-th (from 
bear), dea-th (from die), gif-t (from give), thef-t (from 
thieve), rif-t (from rive) ; dee-d (from do), floo-d (from 
flow), mea-d (from mow), aee-d (from sow), 

(4) Forming Diminutives — 

-en ; as, ma/id-en, 7eitt-en (from cat), chicken (from cock), 
-ing; a,&, farth-ing [frora fourth), whit-vng, 
-kin ; as, lamb-kin, pip-kin (from pipe, a cask), mann-i-kiru 
-ling; as, duck-ling, gos-Ung (from goose), dar-Ung (frc 

dear), suck-Ung. 
-oek; as, hill-ock, buU-och. 

Exercise 217. 

1. Form Nouns from the Verbs lose, weave, break, and hold, 

2. Form Nouns from the following A^djectiwes :— Drunken, free, true^ 
wise, dear, hard, manly, 

3. Form Nouns from the following Nouns by the addition of Suffixes : — 
Serf, man, lamb, duck, goose, hate, friend, king, lord, law, 

4. Give the Diminutives of dear, lamb, hill, bull, pipe, cock, cat, fourth. 
6. From what words are the following derived : — Shovel, shuttle, spinster^ 

hatred, worship, dearth, birth, death, deed, rift, flood, mead, seed, kitten^ 
mannikin, farthing, gosling ? 

475. Acyectives have Suffixes : — 

-ed and -en, the Participial Suffixes, which are also added to 
Nouns ; as, wretch-ed, gift-ed, gold-en, wood-en, silver-n^ 
leather -n. 
-ern ; as, north-em, west-em, 

-ish (added to Nouns means * like *) ; as, boy-ish, girl-ishf 
swin-ish. 
Added to Adjectives the Suffix means * somewhaV 
' rather) ' ; as, black-ish, whit-ish. 



ENGLISH SUFFIXES 245 

— ■ -■ ■ 

-fal (fiill of) ; as, hope-fuly hurt-ful, 

-less (without) : as, hope-hss, fear-less. 

-ly (like) ; as, god-ly, man-ly, 

-some (full of), added to Nouns, as hand-some ,. game-some ; 

to Adjectives, as, tire-some, gladsome ; and to Verbs, as 

tvin-some, 
-th (in ordinals) ; &8, four-th^ fif-th. 
-ward (becoming or turning to) ; as, south-ward, to-ward, 

fro-ward. 
-y, added to Nouns to show the presence of the thing named ; 

as, hill-y, storm-y, wood-y. 



Exercise 218. 

1. Form Adjectives by means of suffixes from wretch, leather, right, pity, 
and man, 

2. Add Adjective suffixes to sot, air, quarrel, law, slave, and north, 

3. Derive Adjectives from the following words i^Fool, heed, sense^ 
ghost, boy, 

4. Form Adjectives from the following Nouns : — Thought, snow, trouble, 
beauty, heat, rag, wood, 

6. Give two Adjectives each derived from tvood, god, law, need, north, 

6. Give examples of Adjectives ending in -ed, -en, -em, -fold, -less* 

7. What is the force of the suffixes in the following Adjectives: — > 
Thoughtful, manly, blackish, hopeless, wooden, gladsome, hilly ? 

476. Verbs have Suffixes. 

-le, -el, or -1 has a frequentative and diminutive force. It is 

added to Nouns ; as, nest-le, sparh-le, thrott-le (from 

throat), curd-le, scribb-le (from scribe). 

It is also added to Verbs; as, start-le, dazz-le (from daze), 
stradd-le (from stride), wadd-le (from wade), shov-el, 
sniv-el (from sniff). 
-er has the same force as -le; as, wa/nd-er (from wend), 

gUmm-er (from gleam), flutt-er (from flit). 
-er is also added to Adjectives to form Verbs; as, hind-er, 

low-er, ling-er (from long). 
-k (frequentative) ; as tal-k (from tell), har-k (from hear). 
-en, forming Verbs from Nouns ; as, length en, strength-en, 

fright-en, and from Adjectives, as, short-en, sweet-en, 
-te, forming Verbs from Adjectives ; as, cleam-ae* 



246 LOXGA/AXS' SCHOOL GKAMMAR 



Exercise 219. 

1. Fonn Verbs from sparky g^ad, light, beck, nest, muff, knee, throat, 
stride, sniff, wend, gleam, clean. 

2. From what words are the following Verbs derived : — Sparkle, dazzle, 
waddle, flutter, linger, talk, hark, sweeten ? 

3. What is the force of the Suffix in lengthen, cleanse, and shovel ? 

477. The chief Adverbial Suffix is 

-ly, added to Adjectives to form Adverbs ; as, kind-ly, glad-ly, 
bad-ly. 



in. Prefixes of Latin Origin. 

Bead again what was said about assimilation in Par. 455. 

478. Some of the Latin prefixes are good examples of assimi- 
lation. Ad- (to), for instance, becomes ac- before c, as ac-cede ; 
af- before/, as af-firm ; ag- before g, as ag-gravate ; aZ- before I, 
as al-lttde ; an- before n, as an-nounce ; ap- before p, as ap-pear ; 
ar- before r, as ar-rogate ; as- before s, as as-sent, and at- before 
t, as at- tract. 

479. The Latin Prefixes are, of course, generally used before 
Latin roots, but it must be borne in mind that the root cannot 
always be found in the Nominative Case of the Noun or in the 
Indicative Mood of the Verb. Thus, the Nominative Case of the 
word for work is opics, but to find the root we must look at the 
Genitive, oper-is. Stripping off the case-ending -is, we get oper, 
and it is from this that derivatives are formed, as seen in oper- 
ate, co-oper-ate, oper-a-tion. 

480. With Verbs we often find derivatives formed, not from 
the Indicative (or Infinitive) Mood, but from the Perfect Parti- 
ciple. Thus rump-ere, *to burst,' has a Perfect Participle, 
rupt-us, and it is from the root rupt that the derivatives ab-rupt, 
cor-rupt, and inter-rupt are formed. 



LATIN PREFIXES 



247 



481. The following are the chief Latin Prefixes ^ : — 

A, ab, abs (away, from) ; as, a-vert, abrupt, aba-tract. 

Ad (to) ; as, ad -here. 

By assimilation ad takes the forms a, ac, al, an, ap, 
and at; as, aspire, ac-cept, al-lude, a/n-nex, ap-peal, 
as-8V/me, at-tract. 

Ante, or anti (before) ; as, a/nte-cedent, a/nti-dpate. 

Bene (well) ; as, bene-ddction, 

Bi (twice) ; as, bisect. 

Circom, circn (round) ; as, d/rcn/m'Vent, circu-it, 

Ck>n (with) ; as, con-vert. 
By assimilation con takes the forms 00, ool, 00m, cor ; m, 
co-here, col-lusion, corn-motion, cor-rupt. 

Contra, contro, and, in composition, counter (against) ; as, 
contra-diet, contro-vert, counter-act. 

De (down, from, out of) ; as, de-tra^t. 

Dis (asunder, apart, in two) ; as, dissect. 
By assimilation dU takes the form di and dif ; as, di-vertf 
dif-fuse. 

Sz (out of) ; as, ex-tract. 

Other forms, e, ef ; as, e-rupUon, ef^fvsion. 

Extra (beyond) ; as, extra-orddna/ry. 

In (into) ; as, in-veat. 
Other forms il, im, ir; as, il-kmon, im-port, ir-rupUon. 



* The Prefixes are 

<ig-ere, aUiu^ act. 
ap^lhare^ call. 
eap-ere^ eapt-tu^ take. 
ced-ere^ cess-tu, go. 
eurr-eref run. 
die-ere^ dict-us^ speak. 
duc-ere, duct-uSy lead. 
fer-rey lotus, carry. 
/ug-ere, flee. 



joined by way of illostration to one 

fund-ereyfustu, poor. 
haer-ere, stick. 
ire, itut, go. 
lud-ere, Itu-tu, play. 
mUt-ere, mUs-iu, send. 
mov-ere, mot-us, move. 
nect-ere, nex-ut, tie. 
pend-^re, hang. 
pon-ere, posU-tu, place. 



of the following roots :— • 

port-are, carry. 
rump-ere, rupt-us, burst. 
see-are, sect-us, cut. 
spir-are, breathe. 
stru-ere, struetus, build. 
sum-ere, sumptus, take. 
trah-ere, tractus, draw. 
ven-ire, come. 
veri-ere, turn. 



Ituc, Qt%TL luc4s, light. 

The InflnitiTe of each Verb is given ; this is followed in most cases by the Perfeot 
Partioiple. 



t48 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



In (not) ; as, in-firm. 

Other forms, im, ir ; as, im-movable, ir-retpomihle. 

Inter, intro (among, within) ; as, inter-rupt^ intro-duee* 

Ob (against) ; as, obstruct 

Other forms, oc, of, op ; as, oc-cuTt of-feVf op-pose. 

Per (through) ; as, per-vert. 
Other form, pel ; as, pel-lucid. 

Post (after) ; as, poat-pone, 

Prae, or pre (before) ; as, pre-dict, 

Praeter, or preter (past) ; as, preter-mit 

Be (back or again) ; as, re-inove. 

Betro (backwards) ; as, retro-ceaaion, 

8e (aside or apart) ; as, se-cede. 

8ab (under) ; as, aub-vert. 
Other forms, sue, suf, snp, nit; as, auc-ceed^ wf-fuBe^ 
aup'port, aua-pend. 

Subter (beneath) ; as, subter-fuge, 

Buper (above) ; as, auper-atructure. 
Often found in the French form, snr ; as, sur-fcLce, 

Trans or tra (beyond, across) ; as, tra/na-rmt, tra-duee. 

Ultra (beyond) ; as, ultra-montane* 



Exercise 220. 

1. From the meanings of the Prefix and the Boot determine the meaning 
of i—Re-actf counter-act, trans-act^ contro-vert, a-verty con-vert^ re-vert, di- 
vert, per-vert, aub-vert. 

2. Terra means the earth and luna means the moon. What is the 
meaning of sub-icrranean and sub-lunar 'i 

3. Put as many Prefixes as possible before -mit {mitt-ere, to send) and 
-diet (dic-ere, to speak). 

4. What are the Prefixes in subterfuge, subterranean, pellucid, emigrate, 
eruption, irruption, corruption, diffuse, auffuse, profuse, refuse, confuse, 
effusion? 

5. Give words showing the various forms which ad, con, in, ex and sub 
take in composition. 

^. What is the meaning of extra^ in, de, ae and retrot 



LATIN SUFFIXES 249 



IV. Suffixes of Latin Origin. 

482. K onns have SufiSxes : — 

(1) Denoting Agent, doer, or person — 

•ain or -an ; as, capt-adn, pubUc-cm, 

-ate ; as, leg-ate. 

-ee ; as, trust-ee, nom/in-ee, 

-ey ; as, attom-ey, 

-y; BAjv/r-y. 

-tor, -sor, -or, or -er ; as, compirortor, successor, doct^or, sail- 
or, declaim-er, 

-er, -eer, -ier, -ary ; as, arch-er, mushet-eer, brigad-ier, com,' 
misS'O/ry. 

-ant, -ent ; as, merch-cmt, stud-ent, 

-ist ; as, evangel-ist. 

(2) Forming Abstract Nouns — 

•age ; as, cour-age, horn-age, 

-ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency ; as, endAir-a/nce^ expect-a/ncy, pati- 
ence, dec-ency. 

-tion, -lion, -son, -som, -ion; a,B,emula-tionf eva-sUmtpoi-son^ 
ra/n-8om, act-ion, 

-ty; as, cruel- ty, penal- ty, 

-tude ; as, grati-tude, plend-tude, 

-y ; as, miser-y, memor-y, victor-y, 

-ment ; as, panf-ment, comma/nd-ment, 

-ice, -ise ; as, serv-ice, just-ice, exerc-ise, 

-nre, -enr ; as, vest-u/re^ verd-u/re, grand-eti/r. 

-0ry ; as, slav-ery. 

(8) Forming Diminutives^ — 

-after ; as, poet-aster, 

•el, -le ; as, Ub-el (from Uber^ a book)} cast'le (from GMtrwmf 
a fortified place). 



ISO LONGMANS* SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



-de, -eel, -lel ; as, aril-cle (from artiis, a joini), pa/r-cel (from 
pa/rs, a part), damsel (from domina, a lady). 

-ale ; as, glob-ule, pill-ule, 

•et, -let ; as, lanc-ety stream-let. 

(4) Forming Collective Nouns — 
-ry, -ery, as peaaant-ry, artiM-ery, 

Exercise 221. 

1. What are the Suffixes in villain, devotee, preacher, robber, magnate^ 
novelist, cowardice, benison, riddance ? 

2. What is the force of the Suffixes in executor, enchantment, grandeur, 
bounty, frailty, flowret, chivalry ? 

3. Form diminutives from owl, poke (a bag), arm and cut. 

4. Add Suffixes to save, attend, engine, chancsl, depiUe, act, tUl, bond^ 
Have, miser, serve, pill, stream, peasant. 

483. A^'ectives are formed by the Suffixes — 
-al ; as, reg-al, leg-al. 

•an, -ane, -ain ; as, pag-cm, mv/nd-cme, cert-a/in, 
-ar ; as, regul-ar, aingul-ar, 
-ary, -arious ; as, atation-ary, greg-ariotut, 
-able, -ible, -ble; as, cap-able, twng-ible, feeb-le, 

-ate, -ete, -eet, -ite, -te; as, consider-ate, concT'.etet ddecr-eet^ 
erud-ite, fortima-te, 

-ent; es,flu-ent. 
-CUB ; as, copi-ous, danger'Oue, 
-ions ; as, cur-ioua, 
'QOvlb; &B, aqueous, 
-ose ; as, verb-ose. 
-ic ; as, publ-ic, cvu-ic, class-io, 
-id ; a.B,ferv-id, tim-id, hv/m-id, 
-il, -ile, -eel, -le ; as, ciA)-il, serv-ile, gent'Celf aib-lct 
'ive, -iff; as, plcmit-ive, pladnt-iff* 
'ine ; as, femin^ine^ feVvM% 



GREEK PREFIXES 251 



^■i*M 



Exercise 222. 

1. Fonn Adjectives from comics teachy censor ^ hurry ^ plamt, rest. 

2. What are the Suffixes in general, gregariotis, dwine, patent, cautioitSf 
culpable, copious, verbose, loquacious, timid, indicative ? 

484. Verbs are formed by the Suffixes — 
-ate ; as, alien-ate, assassin-ate, 
-fy ; as, classi-fy, magni-fy. 
-iih ; as, flour -ish, pun-ish, nowr-ish. 

Exercise 223. 

Make a list of ten Verbs ending in -^y, three ending in -a^, and fonr 
ending in -ish. 



485. 



V. Prefixes of Oreek Origin. 

A (not, without, want of) ; as, a-pathy (want of feeling). 

Also in the form an ; as, a/n-archy (want of order). 

Amphi (on both sides, romid about) ; as, amphi-theatre. 

Ana (up) ; as, ana-tomy (a cutting up). 

Anti (against) ; as, a/nti-pathy (a feeling against). 

Apo (from, away) ; as, apostrophe (literally a turning away). 

Cata (down, over) ; as, catastrophe (literally an over-turning.) 

Dia (through) ; as, dior-meter (measure through). 

En (in, on, at) ; as, en-caustic (burnt in). 

Also em ; as, em-phatic (spoken with stress on). 

Epi (upon) ; as, epi-taph (something upon a tomb). 

Eu (well) ; as, eu-phony (what sounds well). 

Ex (out of) ; as, ex-odus (a passage out of). 

Exo (without, out of doors) ; as, exo-teric (external). 

Hyper (over, above) ; as, hyper -criticism. 

Hypo (from under, beneath) ; as, hypo-thesis (that which is 
placed under— as a ground- work or foundja.ti<^\^ ol ^^ss^^- 
position). 



2p LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

Meta (after) ; as, meta-phytica (the science which comes after 
physics). 

Para (beside) ; as, ptMra-jphroBe (a phrase beside the one 

given). 

Peri (round) ; as, peri-meter (measure round). 

ijn (with, together) ; as, iyn-thens (a placing with, building 
up). 

Also in the forms ly, syl, lym ; as, ty-stem (that which 
is formed of parts placed together), syl-ldble (letters 
taken together), sym-pathy (a feeling with). 

Exercise 224L 

1. Give the meanings of the Prefixes in an-onymotis, anu-logy, apo-logyt 
cata-comb^ em-pJiatic^ eur-logy, hyper-criticism, meta-morphosis, 

2. What are the Prefixes in period, syllogism, system, parable, exotic, 
amphibious ? 

3. Place as many Prefixes as possible before thesis, pathy and logy (from 
lego, speak). 

VI. Suffixes of Oreek Origm. 

486. Nouns have Greek Suffixes — 

-ic ; as, log-ic, mus-ic. 

-ac ; as, mani-ac, 

-lis, -ly, -Be ; as, paralysis, pal-sy, ecUp-ae, 

-y ; as, a/narch-y, monarch-y. 

-ilk (a Diminutive) ; as, aster-isJc, obel-isic, 

-ize, -ise (forming Verbs) ; as, bapt-ize, anathemat-ize. 

-ist ; as, bapt-ist, soph-ist. 

Exercise 225. 

1. What are the Suffixes in anatomy, arithmetic, emphasiSt hypocrisy ^ 
sophist, and asterisk ? 

2. Make Verbs ending in -iee, or -tse. 



INTERNAL CffANGES 253 



Words Formed by Internal Changes. 

487. Nouns are formed — 

(1) By chomge of Vowel. 

(a) From other Nouns ; as, kit (from cat), tip (from top). 

(b) From Verbs ; as, bliss (irombless), food (from feed), song 

(from sing)f tale (from tell). 

(2) By change of Consona/nt (from Verl)s) ; as, ditch (from dig), 

speech (from speak) , strife (from strive). 

(3) By change of Vowel and Consonant. 

(a) From Nouns ; as, kid (from goat), chick (from cock), 
(6) From Verbs ; as, breach (from break), life (from live), 
watch (from wake), woof (from weave). 

Exercise 226. 

1. Form Nouns from the Verbs choose, knit, prove, scrape, believe, dig, 
bake. 

2. From what Verbs are the following formed :—Bond, stroke, ditch, 
watch, proof, drove, share ? 

3. From what Nouns are kit tip, kid, and chick derived ? 

488. Adjectives are formed — 

(1) By change of Vowel. 

(a) From Nouns ; as, hot (from heat), proud (from pride), 
{b) From Verbs ; as, live (from live), 

(2) By change of Vowel and Consonant ; as, chill (from cool). 

Exercise 227. 

1. From what words are full, wrong, hot, proud, and chill derived ? 

489. Verbs are formed — 

(1) By change of Vowel. 

(a) From Nouns ; as, gild (from gold), bleed (from blood). 

(b) From Adjectives ; &s, fill (from full), 

(c) From Verbs ; as, raise (from rise), fell (from fall), set 

(from sit). 



254 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



(2) By change of Consonant, 

(a) From Nouns ; as, to house (from house)^ wreathe (from 

wreath). 
(6) From Verbs ; as, toince (from wink), dodge (from dog). 

(8) By change of Vowel and Consonant, 

(a) From Nouns ; as, graze (from grass), breathe (from 

breath). 

(b) From Verbs ; as, dredge (from drag), watch (from wake). 

Exercise 228. 

1. From what words are the following Verbs derived l^Heal, calve, hahtt 
'< drip, shelve, glaze, hitch. 

2. Form Verbs hom price, advice^ rise, He, drinks tvindt chop* 



NOTES FOR TEACHERS. 



1. Nothing is said here or elsewhere to indicate whether the Ex« 
ercises are to be worked orally or in waiting ; the decision is left in 
every case to the teacher. Now and then, however, an exercise is so 
long that children could hardly be expected to work the whole of it in 
writing. 

2. Proper Nouns are taken first, because young children knowing 
nothing of Grammar will recognize instantly that Jacky for example, 
is a name, while they might fail to see at once that hoy is also a 
name. 

3. Teachers may be found who are careful to tell their pupils that 
a Noun is the name of a thing and not the thing itself, and who yet 
will say that a Verb tells what a Noun does. Averyhttle thought will 
show that a Verb (if it speaks at all of doing) tells of the action of 
some person or thing, and not of the action of some Noun. 

4. It need hardly be pointed out that this is not a definition of a 
Verb, but only a description of certain Verbs. 

5. In teaching, induction and deduction must go hand in hand ; 
examples must lead up to definitions, and definitions must be applied 
to examples. It is sometimes impossible to frame a definition which 
shall be at once simple and logically correct. In such a case I 
believe that the best plan is to give a rough working definition or to 
let the pupils take examples on the authority of the teacher. Young 
children will find it hard to comprehend the verbal notion underlying 
he, havBy shall, and will, and I think that the teacher should simply 
tell them these are Verbs. With the development of the children's 
minds will come a development of their ideas of .Verbs and a percep- 
tion that the definition includes the words named. 

Only the Third Person of the Verb to he is given in Par. 8 ; the 
First and Second Persons will be given after Pronouns. 

6. Can, couldy may, might, do, and did will be dealt with in Part 
n. (See Pars. 252-4.) 



256 LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



7. Exercise 22 should be worked again and again, and when similar 
sentences occur in the reading lesson the children should be asked to 
pick out the Verbs. Some sentences of the kind will be found in 
Exercise 51. 

8. Young teachers should avoid the common error of saying that 
the Verb io he tells what a thing is. In the sentence * Sugar is sweet/ 
M certainly does not say what sugar is. Logically, iweei is the Predi- 
cate and is the copula. 

9. These sentences may prove rather confusing to children, but 
they will become quite clear if the teacher will make two pupils stand 
out and let one personate Mr. Smith and the other Mr. Brown. 

10. The emphatic use of these words is dealt with in Pars. 184-5. 

11. The definition of a Pronoun given in Par. 35 would not 
satisfy a logician, but a definition which would satisfy a logician would 
not satisfy a teacher of young children, for it would be unintelligible 
to them. 

12. Adjectives used without Nouns and Participles used with Nouns 
will be dealt with in Part II. (See Pars. 218-21 and 257-63.) 

13. Begarded as a definition, mine is unsatisfactory. Its only merit 
is that young children can understand it. Dr. Bain*s is a good defini- 
tion, and if teachers think their pupils capable of comprehending it, 
they should teach it in preference to mine. 

14. The method of parsing shown in the text is taken (with a slight 
alteration) fi:om * How to tell the Parts of Speech.' Dr. Abbott 
strongly (and, as I think, rightly) maintains that a child should first 
be taught to see what a word doe» and thence infer what it is. The 
keynote to any profitable system of teaching grammar is therefore^ not 
because, * Giving reasons after the answer is not the same mental 
process as giving first the facts and then deducing the answer from the 
facts. A boy that has given a bad answer will generally find little 
difficulty in supporting it with a bad reason. But if you fix his atten- 
tion first on what the word does, before he has committed himself to 
an error y and while his mind is open to receive the truth, he is more 
likely to reason in an unbiassed and honest way ; and, besides, he will 
attach importance to that which is really important — I mean the 
function and not the name of the word.' — Preface to * How to tell the 
Parts of Speech^' passim, 

15. A tew difiicult Adverbs will be dealt with in Part II. (See 
Pars. 827-37.) 

16. * The words yeSy yea, ay, no, are called Adverbs and seem to 
have an Adverbial force, but, as Mr. C. P. Mason remarks, they are 
never used to qualify Yerbs^ Adjectives, or other Adverbs, and there* 



NOTES FOR TEACHERS 2557 



fbre appeao: scarcely entitled to the appellation. He proposes to call 
them Interjections, hut this, too, seems ohj actionable, as they are not 
outbursts of emotion like Alas I Hurrah I and the like. They are 
rather a species of relative words which express a speaker's assent or 
denial to a particular statement, not by repeating the statement, but 
by referrins: to it as just having been enounced. Many [other Adverbs] 
may be detached in the same way from the sentence that they qualify ; 
for example, certamly^ surely, indeed, &c. The Adverb then stands 
alone by an obvious ellipsis.' — Bain : A Higher English Grammar, 
p. 73. 

17. The definition of an Adverb given in the text is adapted from 
an alternative definition given by Mr. Mason : * An Adverb is a word 
which adds to the meaning and limits the application of a Verb, 
Adjective, or other Adverb.' 

18. Children should not be taught to trust to mechanical rules for 
determining what Fart of Speech a word is, but the peculiarities men- 
tioned in the text are worth noting. 

19. Mr. Mason defines a Preposition as ' a word which when 
placed before a Noun or Pronoun denotes some relation in which a 
thing, or some action or attribute of a thing, stands to something else.' 
As a logical definition this is better than the one given in the text, but 
I do not think that young children could understand it. Teachers 
must decide for themselves what their pupils should learn. 

Dr. Morell defines a Preposition as * a word which shows the rela- 
tion of a Noun or Pronoun to some other word in the sentence,' and 
many other writers give substantially the same definition. That, 
however, is open to very serious objection ; it confounds na/mes and 
things. In the sentence * The book is on the table,' on does not show 
the relation between the Noun hook and the Noun table, but between 
the things. 

20. Some of the more difiicult Conjunctions and the difference 
between Conjunctive Adverbs and Conjunctions will be taken in Part 
II. (See Pars. 328-37, 342.) 

21. Eeference to Par. 72 will show that the definition of a Coor 
junction given in Par. 74 is incomplete ; but till the children have 
studied Conjunctive Adverbs and Relative Pronouns they cannot 
understand the necessary limitations. 

22. If the children are studying foreign languages, they may take 
Par. 100 ; if they are not, it should be omitted. 

23. If the children are studying Latin or Greek, teachers should 
show them that English is now devoid of gra/mmatical gpnder. (See 

far. 45G.) 

8 



2SS LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 

84. The method of dealing with Relative Pronouns adopted in the 
text was suggested by Br. Abbott^s ' How to tell the Parts of Speech.* 

25. The classiBcntion of the words mentioned in Par. 210 bristles 
with difficulties. I am not satisfied with the method of deal- 
ing with them adopted by any previous writer — I am not even 
satisfied with my own method. The only merit which I claim for it 
is simplicity ; that should commend it to teachers though granmiarians 
may find fault with it. 

26. The Subjunctive Mood with an auxiliary will be taken after the 
Infinitive Mood. (See Pars. 253-6.) 

27. If the pupils are young, they need not study Gerunds till they 
come to the minute analysis of sentences. 

28. As a matter of grammar the study of the sub-tenses is not 
specially important, but with a view to composition it is very useful, 
because it calls attention to the shades of meaning which may be 
conveyed by auxiliaries. 

Teachers who look upon the sub-tenses as a needless refinement 
or one beyond their pupils must take pains to show that the Present 
Perfect is Present and not Past. 

29. * Present Perfect Continuous ' is not a very satisfactory term 
for the tense of have been learning, but, long as it is, a more satisfisu;- 
tory term would be still longer. 

80, This list and the lists of Weak Verbs following it have been 
taken, with very little change, fi-om Dr. Morris. They are given in 
order that they may be referred to when necessary. It is not intended 
that they should be learned by rote, for the pupils being English 
know the preterite and participles of most common Verbs before they 
begin to study grammar. Teachers should ask questions on the lists 
and then set those Verbs to be learned with which the children are not 
quite familiar. 

81. * The author is utterly at a loss to conceive on what principle 
the introduction of faulty sentences for correction can be objected to. 
Specimens of bad spelling for correction are injurious, because, in 
England at least, spelling is not reducible to fixed rules, but is for the 
most part a matter of simple recollection, and if the eye gets accus- 
tomed to the look of ill-spelt words, it is often difficult to recollect the 
correct mode of spelling them. Syntactical errors are of a totally 
different kind. They admit of being corrected on fixed principles ; 
and as the learner is pretty sure to meet with numerous examples of 
faulty sentences, both in conversation and in reading, it seems desir- 
able that he should have some practice in the correction of those 
mistakes which are of most frequent occurrence. Those who object to 



NOTES FOR TEACHERS 259 

exercises of this kind should, to be consistent, exclude from books on 
logic all specimens of fallacies given for the purpose of correction. 
Yet those who have studied and taught logic are aware that few 
exercises are more beneficial.' — Mason : English Grcummary ed. 1861, 
p. 173. 

32. Children should not be set to learn the conjugations by rote. 
They know how to use a Verb before they have begun to study 
granmaar. When, therefore, they have thoroughly mastered the mean- 
ing of Voices, Moods, Tenses, Persons, and Numbers, they ought to 
be able, with a little guidance, to make up a conjugation. They would 
thus be engaged in an interesting exercise of the intelligence, whUe 
learning by rote would be only a tedious exercise of the memory. 

33. The division of Conjunctions into Co-ordinating and Sub- 
ordinating will be taken after the children have learned to distinguish 
between Co-ordinate and Sub-ordinate Sentences. 

34. But is in some cases a very difficult word to deal with, 
especially as good writers do not agree in the use of it. Some, for 
example, say ' But I,' and some ' But me.' For a clear discussion on 
its peculiarities see Mason's * EngHsh Grammar,' ed. 1886, pp. 116, 
124, 190. Troublesome sentences (like * There is no one but thinks 
him guilty ') are not introduced in this book. 

35. * Indirect Object ' is a perfectly legitimate term when legiti- 
mately used, but it is often strangely misappHed. The words printed 
in itaUcs in the foUowing sentences are by some grammarians caUed 
Indirect Objects : — 

The people made Edward hing. 
We saw the ship sink in the waves. 
I am ready to sta/rt. 

It is difficult to see how the last sentence can have an Object of anj 
kind when it has no Transitive Verb. 



INDEX. 



^, see * Articles * 
Absolute, see ' Case ' 
Active, see * Voice * 
Adjectives, 36-46, 215-236 

place of, 43 

with pronouns, 44 

distributive } 210, 211 

of quality, 215 

of quantity, 216 

demonstrative, 210, 217 

used as or without nouns, 218- 

221 
comparison, 223-231, 458 
positive degree, 225 
comparative degree, 226 
superlative degree, 227 

Adjective clauses, 394-400 

Adjuncts, 124-126 ; see also * Sub- 
ject,' • Predicate,' * Object ' 

Adverbial clauses, 401-406 

Adverbs, 48-69, 322-340 
of time, 322 
of place, 323 
of manner, 324 
of degree or repetition, 325 
of affirmation or negation, 326 
of cause and consequence, 327 
conjunctive, 328-336 
comparison of, 338-340 



COL 

Agreement of verbs, 291, 310-312 
An, see * Articles * 
Analysis of sentences, 115-134, 
358-434 

• Anglo-Saxon,' 440 
Antecedent, 190 
Apostrophe, 142, 457 
Apposition, 344, 345 
Aryan languages, 436 
Aryans, 435 

* Articles,' 42, 222 
As, 202, 337 

Be, 8-11, 16, 33, 296 
But, 356 

Cas, 303 

Case, 115-150, 457 
nominative, 115-128 
absolute, 346 
of address, 347 
objective, 129-138 
of time, space and measure- 
ment, 348 
possessive, 139-148 
after be, 343 
in apposition, 844, 345 
Changes in language, 444 
Collective, see * Nouns * 



[The numbers rtfer to the paragraphs.} 



i 



26a 



LONGMANS' SCHOOL GRAMMAR 



COM 

Common, su * Nouns * and ' Qender * 
Comparison, see ' Adjectives * and 

* Adverbs ' 
Complement of the predicate, 361- 

365, 376 
Complex sentences, 383-407 
Composition of words, 467-470 
Compound sentences, 408-415 
Concord, see ' Agreement * 
Conjugation, 292-305 
Conjunctions, 70-74, 341, 342, 416- 
418 

subordinating, 390-393, 418 

co-ordinating, 417 
Contracted sentences, see * Words 

" understood " * 



DjBSt 305 

Dead and living languages, 443 

Defective verbs, 298 

Definite article, see ' Articles ' 

Demonstrative, see * Adjectives * 

and * Pronouns ' 
Derivation of words, 464-489 
Distributive, see * Pronouns ' 
Do, 306-309 

Elliptical sentences, see * Words 

" understood *' * 
English, the, 438 



Feminine, see * Gender * 
Finite verbs, 360 

Gender, 102-114, 456 
masculine, 104 
feminine, 104 
neuter, 104 
common, 105 



MOO 

Gerunds, 264-268 
Greek pietixes»485 

suflizes, 486 
Grimm's law, 437 

HdFE, 12-15, 17, 34, 294 

iMPSBiTivB, see * Moods ' 
Imperative sentences, 122, 123, Ex. 

188 

Imperfect, see * Tenses ' 

Indefinite, see * Articles ' and * Pro- 
nouns ' 

Indicative, see * Moods ' 

' Indirect object,' see * Object * 

Infinitive, see * Moods * 

Inflected and uninflected languages, 
441 

Interjections, 75-77 
Interrogative, see * Pronouns * 
Interrogative sentences, 120, 121, 

Ex. 187 
Intransitive verbs, 240, 241 
Its, 461 



Keltic Element in English, 446 
Kelts, 439 



Latin words in English, 446, 447, 
449-451 

prefixes, 478-481 

suffixes, 482-484 
Long simple sentences, 381, S82 



Masculine, see * Gender ' 
May, 301 
Moods, 242-256 
indicative, 243 



ITlu numbers mfer to the paragraphs,} 



INDEX 



263 



MOO 

Moods : imperative, 244 
subjunctive, 246-247, 253-25$ 

with auxiliaries, 253-256 
infinitive, 248-252 
with to, 23, 249 
without to, 24, 252 
Must, 302 



Neuter, see * Gender * 
Nominative, see ' Case ' 
Normans, influence of, on the 

language, 449, 450 
Norse words, 448 
Notes for teachers, p. 255 
Nouns, 1-5, 86-170 

proper, 86 

common, 87 

abstract, 88-90 

collective, 101 

see * Number,' * Gender,' * Case,' 
* Person* 

Noun clauses, 383-392 

Number, 91-101, 454, 456 

singular \ gj 

plural J 

foreign plurals, 100 

of verbs, 291, 310-312 



Object, 129, 135, 367, 368 
enlarged, 371 
* indirect,' 378-380 

Objective, see * Case ' 

Order of words, 361-355 

OvjghU 304 



BBV 

Participles used as adjectives, 263 
Parts of speech, 47 
Passive, see * Voice ' 
Past, see * Tenses ' 
Perfect, see * Participles ' 
Person in pronouns, 172-174 

in nouns, 174 

in verbs, 291 , 
Personal pronouns, see ' Pronouns ' 
Place of Subject and Object, 149, 

160 
Positive, see * Adjectives * 
Possessive, see * Case ' 
Predicate, 116, 117, 360-366 

verbs of incomplete predication, 
362-366, 376 

complement of, 362, 364, 376 

enlarged, 372-375 
Prefixes, English, 471-473 

Latin, 478-481 

Greek, 486 
Prepositions, 60-68 

governing the objective, 137, 138 
Pronouns, 28-35, 171-214 

personal, 28-32, 35, 171-181, 
459-462 

reflexive, 182-186 

relative, 186-203 

interrogative, 204-209 

demonstrative x 

indefinite 210-211 

distributive ^ 

Us, 461 
Proper, see * Nouns ' 
Proportion of native and foreign 

words in English, 453 



Pabsino, 47, 128, 136, 321, Exs. 

98, 113, 120, 174 
Participles, 257-268 

imperfect, 259-261 

perfect, 262 



Beflexive, see * Pronouns ' 
Belative, see ' Pronouns ' 
Bevision, 78-86, 151-170,212-214, 
232-236, 313-321 



\The numberi refer to the paragraphs,} 



964 



LONGMAXS' SCHOOL GRA.\nfAR 



SAM 

Same words as 

noons and verbs, 27 

nonns and adjectives, 45 

adverbs and prepositions, 67, 68 
* Saxon,' 440 
Sentences, 120-123, 358>415 

stating, 120 

interrogative, 120, 121, Ex. 187 

imperative, 122, 123, Ex. 188 

simple, 358-382 

long simple, 381, 382 

complex, 383-407 

compound, 408-415 
Sliall, 19, 272, 299 
Simple sentences, 359-382 
Singular, see * Number ' 
Stating sentences, 120 
Strong and weak verbs, 283-290 
Subject, 116, 119, 358 

enlarged, 369, 370 
Subjunctive, see * Moods ' 
Subordinate clauses, 884 
Suffixes, EngUsh, 474-477 

Latin, 482-484 

Greek, 486 
Superlative, see ' Adjectives 



WOB 

T%an, 343 

That, 357 

The, see * Articles ' 

Transitive verbs, 239, 241 



* Undebstood,' see * Words " ondar- 
stood"* 



Vebbs, 6-26, 237-321, 463 
of incomplete predication, 362- 

366,376 
see also Be, Have, Shall, WiU, 

Can, Do, Dare, Ought, Must, 

* Voice,' 'Moods,' * Tenses,' 

• Number,' * Person,' <fco. 
Voice, 237, 238 

active, 237 
passive, 238 



Tenses, 269-282 
subtenses, 273-279 



Weak verbs, see * Strong and 

weak verbs ' 
Will, 19, 272, 300 
Words ' understood,' 349, 350 
Words formed by internal changes, 

487-489 

ITJie numben r^er to the paragra^^} 



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Mr. Percival Chubb, 

Mr. James Greenleaf Croswell, 

Mr. Wilson Farrand, 

Dr. D. O. S. Lowell, 

Supt. William H. Maxwell, 

Mr. Edwin L. Miller, 

Dr. G. C. D. Odell, . 



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Longmans' English Qassics — Continued* 
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Burke's 5|>eech on Conciliation with America. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Albert S. Cook, Ph.D., 
L.H.D., Professor of the English Language and Literature in Yale 
University. Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.35. 

[For Study, 1900, 1901, 1902* 1903* 1904, 1905.] 
Carlyle's Essay on Bums. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by WiLSON Farrand, A.M., 
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Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.35. 

[For Reading, 1903, 1904, 1905.] 
Coo|>er's The Last of the Mohicans. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Charles F. RICHARDSON, 
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mouth College. Cloth, $0.60; boards, $0.50. 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902.] 
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Defoe's History of the Plague in London. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Professor G. R. Carpenter, 
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De Quincey's Flight of a Tartar Tribe. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Charles Sears Baldwin, 
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Cloth, $0.40* boards, $0.30. 

[For Reading, 1900.] 
Dryden's Palamon and Arcite. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by William Tenney Brewster, 
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Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.35. 

[For Reading, 1900.] 
George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes/ by Robert Herrick, A.B., 
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£For Reading f 1901, 19029 1903, 190 a« i905*l 



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Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Mary A. Jordan, A.M., 
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[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905.] 
Irving's Tales of a Traveller. 

With an Introduction by Brander Matthews, Professor of Literature 
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Macaulay's Essay on Milton. 

Edited by James Greenleaf Croswell, A.B., Head-master of the 
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Macaulay's Essay on Milton and Addison. 

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[For Study, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905.] 
Macaulay's Life of Samuel Johnson. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by the Rev. Huber Gray 
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Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by William P. Trent, A,M., 
Professor of English in the University of the South. 

Cloth, $0.60; boards, $0.50. 

[For Study, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905.] 
Milton's Paradise Lost. 

Books I. and II. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Edward 
Everett Hale, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Rhetoric and Logic in 
Union College. Cloth, $0.50 ; boards, $0.35. 

[For Study, 1900.] 
Po|>e's Homer's Iliad. Books I., VI., XXII. and XXIV. 

Edited by William H. Maxwell, A.M., Ph.D., Superintendent of 
City Schools, New York, and Percival Chubb, Instructor in Eng- 
lish, The Ethical Culture Schools. Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.40. 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902.] 
Scott's Ivanhoe. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Bliss Perry, A.M., Professor 
of Oratory and ./Esthetic Criticism in Princeton University. 

Cloth, $0.75 ; boards^ $0.60, 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 190a, 190^^ \^^V^v^^^^ 



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Scott*s Marmion. 

Exiited, with Introduction and Notes, by Robert Morss Lovett, A.B., 
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Scott's Woodstock. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Bliss Perry, A.M., Professor 
of Oratory and ^Esthetic Criticism in Princeton University. Cloth, $0. 75. 

Shaks|>ere's As You Like It. 

With an Introduction by Barrett Wendell, A.B., Assistant Professor 
of English in Harvard University, and Notes by William Lyon Phelps, 
Ph.D., Assistant Professor of English Literature in Yale University. 

Cloth, $0.60. 

Shakspere's Macbeth. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by John Matthews Manly, 
Ph.D., Professor of English in the University of Chicago. 

Cloth, $0.50 ; boards, $0.40. 

[For Study, 1900* 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905.] 
Shakspere's Merchant of Venice. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Francis B. Gummere, Ph.D., 
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[For Reading, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905*] 
Shaks|>ere's Julius Csesar. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by George C. D. Odell, Ph.D., 
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With Portrait of Shakspere. Cloth, $0. 50 ; boards, $0.40. 

[For Reading, 1903, 1904, 1905*] 
Shaks|>ere's A Midsummer Night's Dream. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by George Pierce Baker, 
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The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers. 

From "The Spectator." Edited by D. O. S. Lowell, A.M., of the 
Roxbury Latin School, Roxbury, Mass. Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.40. 
[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902, 19031 1904* i905-] 

Southey's Life of Nelson. 

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Tennyson's The Princess. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by George Edward Wood- 
berry, A. B. , Professor of Literature in Columbia University. 

Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.40. 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, i904» ipos.] 
Webster's First Bunl^er Hill Oration. 

Together with other Addresses relating to the Revolution. Edited, with 

Introduction and Notes, by Fred Newton Scott, Ph.D., Professor 

of Rhetoric in the University ot Michigan. Cloth, $0.60. 



Longmans, Green, 6r Go's Publications. 

Longmans^ English Classics — Continued* 
Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Mary A. Jordan, A.M., 
Professor of Rhetoric and Old English in Smith College. 

Cloth, $0.60; boards, $0.50. 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905.] 
Irving's Tales of a Traveller. 

With an Introduction by Brander Matthews, Professor of Literature 
in Columbia University, and explanatory Notes by the General Editor 
of the series. Cloth, $1.00. 

Macaulay's Essay on Milton. 

Edited by James Greenleaf Croswell, A.B., Head-master of the 
Brearley School, New York, formerly Assistant Professor of Greek in 
Harvard University. Cloth, $0.50. 

Macaulay's Essay on Milton and Addison. 

Edited by James Greenleaf Croswell, A.B., Head-master of the 
Brearley School, New York, formerly Assistant Professor of Greek in 
Harvard University. Cloth, $0.60; boards, $0.50. 

[For Study, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 19049 1905.] 
Macaulay's Life of Samuel Johnson. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by the Rev. Huber Gray 
Buehler of the Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. Cloth, $0.50. 

Milton's L'Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by William P. Trent, A.M., 
Professor of English in the University of the South. 

Cloth, $0.60; boards, $0.50. 

[For Study, 1901, 1902, 1903, 19049 1905-] 
Milton's Paradise Lost. 

Books I. and II. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Edward 
Everett Hale, Jr., Ph.D., Professor of Rhetoric and Logic in 
Union College. Cloth, $0.50 ; boards, io.35. 

[For Study, 1900.] 
Pope's Homer's Iliad. Books I., VI., XXII. and XXIV. 

Edited by William H. Maxwell, A.M., Ph.D., Superintendent of 
City Schools, New York, and Percival Chubb, Instructor in Eng- 
lish, The Ethical Culture Schools. Cloth, $0.50; boards, $0.40. 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902.] 
Scott's Ivanhoe. 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Bliss Perry, A.M., Professor 
of Oratory and ./Esthetic Criticism in Princeton University. 

Cloth, $0.75 ; boards, $0.60. 

[For Reading, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, i905*l 



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Longmans' **Ship" Literary Readers. 

The volumes of this series of Readers are firmly bound in cloth, 
printed in large type on good paper, and copiously illustrated. The 
selections are from the best modern writers, among them 

J. Fenimore Cooper, Captain Marryat, H. Rider Haggard, 

A. Conan Doyle, Cardinal Newman, Robert L. Stevenson, 

James Anthony Froude, Charles Reade, Mark Twain, 

Washington Irving, Henry W. Longfellow, Bret Harte, 

James Whitcomb Riley, John G. Whittier, R. D. Blackmore. 

The series has been adopted for the Primary and Grammar 
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The chief aim of these books is to cultivate a taste for the best 
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First Primer. Simple Reading 
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Soulsby — Stray Thoughts on Reading. 

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This volume contains suggestions on reading, with classified lists 
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( Teachers and others interested are invited to write for pamphlet 
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prices,) 

The Retreat of the Ten Thousand. 

By Professor C. Witt, Head-master of the Alstadt Gymnasium at 
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ace by H. G. Dakyns, M.A. With Route Map, 12 Full-page Plates, 
and 17 Illustrations in the Text. Crown 8vo. $1.25 

The Trojan War. 

By Professor C. Witt. Translated from the German by Francis 
Younghusband. With a Preface by the Rev. W. G. Rutherford, 
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The King's Story Book. 

Being Historical Stories collected out of English Romantic Literature in 
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GoMME. Photogravure Frontispiece, and 21 full-page Illustrations. 
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Popular Readings in Science. 

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An attempt to present to the reader, in a popular form, some of 
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A New Manual of Method. 

By A. n. Garlick, B.A., Head-master of the Woolwich P. T. Centre. 
Crown Svo. 398 pages. $1.20 net. New Edition, 

"It is the best manual of its scope and size in English." — Natum, New 
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" The notes given on all these topics are those of a master, and of a mas« 
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** It is excellent. No teacher can do without it" — Prof. Carla Wencke- 
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Kindergarten Guide. 

By Loi's Bates. With numerous Illustrations, chiefly in half-tone, and 
16 colored plates. 388 pages. Crown 8 vo. $1.50 »^/. 

In addition to a full description of the kindergarten gifts and oc- 
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kindergarten principles. 

** A long needed hand-book for the kindergarten teacher. . . • The 
whole course of instruction is elaborately explained with full illustrations, so 
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"Never before has there been so full, varied, and detailed a treatment of 
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Books for Teachers — Continued* 
Games Without Music for Children. 

By Lois Bates, Author of ** Kindergarten Guide," etc. I2m0| cloth. 
112 pages. $0.60 nef. 

Contents : I. Games for the Schoolroom — II. Games for the Play- 
ground — III. Guessing Rhymes. 

The object of these games is to introduce variety when it is needed 
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Briefs for Debate on Current, Political, Economic, and 
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Edited by W. DuBois Brookings, A.B., and Ralph Curtis Ring- 
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Ttie Will to Believe, and Other Essays in Popular Phi- 
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By William James, LL.D., Professor of Psychology in Harvard Uni- 
versity. Large crown 8vo. Pp. xvii-332. Cloth, gilt top. $2.00 

Pre-Christian Education. 

By S. S. Laurie, A.M., LL.D., of the University of Edinburg. 444 
pages. $3.50 

This book is an attempt to survey the education of ancient nations 
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and Rome receives fuller consideration than that of other nations. 

Recently adopted as a text-book for Radcliffe College, Columbia 
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leading Institutions. 

Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. will be happy to send their 

Catalogue, describing more than z,ooo text-books and 

works of reference, to any teacher on request. 




STANDARD HISTORIES. 
A Ftrst Histofy of France* By LorisE CREioirrox. witt 

Damerous Illustrations and 5 Colored Maps. i6mo. $1.25. 

** We know of no book that puts the history of France so clearly a^d simply a> 
this of Mn. Cmg,htoiL"^^AmrcAmam^ New York. 

A Sttldent^S History of England* From the earliest times to 
1885. By Samuel Rawson Gardiner. Complete in one volume. 
With 378 Illustrations and Full Index. Crown Svo. Cloth, plain. 
1095 pages. $3.00, or three volumes separately at $1.20 each. 

A Short History of England from the Earliest Times 

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Young Folks^ History of the United States* By Thomas 

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439 P^ST^* $i-oo. 

** I know of no better work for a first book of our national history." — Prof. O. M. 
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English History for Americans* By Thomas Wentworth 
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** I find it the best text on the subject for intermediate work that I have evei 
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A History of Rome to the Death of Caesar* By w. w. 

IIow and H. I). Leigh. With 9 Lithograph Maps, 12 Maps and Plans 
in the Text, and numerous Illustrations from Archaeological Sources. 

Large crown 8vo. 590 pages. $2.00. 

** A clearer, more virile, more interesting presentation of the subject I have never 
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A History of Greece from the Earliest Times to the 
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F.S.A., etc. With 2 Colored Folding Maps, 11 Maps and Plans in the 

Text, Side-notes, and Full Index. i2mo. 570 pages. $1.50. 

** Oman's History of Greece will serve to indicate the amount of knowledge 
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Catalogue. 



LQNOMANS^ OREEN, & CX)*^ 9 J and 93 Fiftfi Aveotie, Nw Yorfc 



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